Sitemap Poland Ukrainian Slovak
Weather - Info
Weather in:

... selected information...





Kamianets Podilskyi

Khotyn Fortress

Sofiyivsky Park,
Софіївський парк,

The Arboretum Oleksandriya,
Державний дендрологічний парк, «Олександрія»





Holy Dormition Pochayiv Lavra

Olesko Castle




The Kingdom
of Galicia and Lodomeria

The Eastern Beskids
and the Ukrainian Carpathians

Eastern Beskids

Cisna - Wetlina Landscape Park,
Ciśniańsko-Wetliński Park Krajobrazowy

San Valley Landscape Park
Park Krajobrazowy Doliny Sanu

East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve

National Park

Poloniny National Park,
Národný park Poloniny

Uzhanian National Nature Park,
Ужанський національний природний парк

Key Word(s): Search By:  


If you like poetry, you will love our new section at.
The section is still developing, however you can use it right now! If you want to find it, click on Kultura (Polish site) and then on banner Poezja. We publish poetry and info about the authors there. Please, check it out.

All you need in this life is ignorance and confidence - and then success is sure.
Surround yourself with friends - join the group of visitors and authors of;
contact us;
We invite you to wander together with

if you plan holidays, travels, rest, adventure:
>> see Tourism
Tourism from Lvov
>> visit History
>> plan Way of Wooden Architecture

"to the mountains and to the valleys dear Brother, where adventure you can gather"

- nice rest, unforgettable views, sensations and memories, good weather,
- that is what Zakapior wishes you.
Latest Articles
Holy Dormition Pochayiv Lavra (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Kliknij i posłuchaj...

Ławra Poczajowska

   On top of Pochayiv hill there stands the Holy Dormition Lavra - a stronghold of the Christian faith, an abode of piety and asceticism, a religious center of the Orthodoxy of Western Rus.

    This ancient monastery is under special protection of the Theotokos. The Most Pure One appeared here to the monks in a pillar of fire and left Her Footprint in the rock upon which She stood. The Pochayiv wonder-working Icon of the Mother of God made this land world-famous. Great Orthodox hermits - the Venerable Job of Pochayiv and a miracle-worker of Volyn - the Venerable Amphilochius carried on their spiritual struggle in this cloister.


There is a great mess with relation to the name Ukraine... (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

A topic for discussion…

   There is a question that ought to be asked, namely what former Rus, especially Kievan Rus', has in common with present Ukraine. Is this the same nation? Descendants of the same people?.
    The experts claim that Kievan Rus' is related to Russia, Belorussia and Ukraine in the same way as Franks are related to France and Germany.
   The word Ukraine has a very old origin; each duchy of southern Rus had its Ukraine that is a territory situated at the border land.
   The first mention about Ukraine appeared in the years 1111-1200 in “Chronicle of Kiev,” in which the anonymous chronicler describing a death of Wlodzimierz, duke of Pereyaslav and the hero of fights against Polovtsy, noted: “And all Pereyaslavians cried after him, Ukraine mourned him greately”.


Castles in the Roztochia... (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Zhovkva (Żółkiew) 
 - is a town full of monuments, Situated in the Roztochia - 34 km from Lvov.  Founded in 1597 by Stanisław Żółkiewski, the Field Crown Hetman. It was the private town. It was granted city rights in 1603. Next, by heirdom, it became the property of his grandson, King John III Sobieski, it also belonged respectively to the Daniłowicz family and to the Radziwiłł family...
   Zhovkva was a favorite residence of John III Sobieski. The king strengthened the town with modern fortifications, he was also decorating it in a Baroque style, he brought there his numerous war trophies...

John III Sobieski King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
 - is a town situated around 70 km from
Lvov (not far from  Pidhirsti and Zolochiv), famous mainly for a castle, a church and a monastery of the Capuchins and a former Holy Trinity Catholic church. For the first time, Olesko appeared in the written sources from 1372. The castle, situated on a hill overlooking the neighboring plain, was built in the 14th century by Galician Volhynian dukes and was many times destroyed by the Tatars. In 1432, the castle was conquered by Jagiełło, who gave it to Jan of Sienno. After the Sienieński family, the Herbut family, later the Kamieniecki family, and at last the Daniłowicz families were the next owners of the castle...

Zolochiv (Złoczów)
- situated to the East from Lvov on a Road to Ternopil, relatively not far from Pidhirtsi and Olesko. During  the times of Sigismund the Old, Wladysław Sieniński, whose town was granted the Magdeburg Rights in 1523, was the owner of the castle. The Górka family of Greater Poland was the next owners of the castle, and since 1592, Marek Sobieski - the grandfather of King John III Sobieski - owned the castle...

Pidhirtsi (Podhorce) 
Podhoreckich, Koniecpolskich, Rzewuskich, Sanguszków...

    One of the most precious palaces and garden complexes in  the Kresy, in the type of villa castello. The composition is based on numerous connections between the view and the surroundings. The palace is situated in a way which enables one to see from the representative rooms and from the garden terraces the boundless plains of the Volhynia Region, and the palace itself is visible from the Volhynia Region for many kilometers...
   Władysław of Varna bestowed the goods of Pidhirtsi and Zahirtsi to Janusz Podhorecki...

The castle was built in 1630-1635 by Grand Hetman  Stanisław Koniecpolski. A two-storey residential building in the form of a palace with a big courtyard decorated with arcades, casemates and a tower was built on a pentagon. The whole was surrounded by walls and defensive shafts with ramparts and a moat. An entrance led through a bridge above the moat and through a gate.
Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
Photos Aleksander Mishuk, Mieczysław Kowal, Janusz Kurasz, Jurek Jaremczuk, (zakapior)


Summary (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

dr Wlodzimierz Gerycz
dr Vasyl Slobodian

Issues and tendencies of protecting historic religious buildings in Ukraine

   Since time immemorial Ukraine has been the center of Eastern Christianity. Many temples were built in Kiev and towns nearby. The ones which survived until this day are treated as the most valuable national historic objects. In the whole country, despite the fact that religious life was being ruined
in various periods, especially in the east during Soviet times, many religious historic objects exist.

   After Ukraine regained independence, the number of voices favoring the protection of cultural heritage began increasing. An appropriate legislation system was created, the state and individual regions readily started joining in to protect and restore historic objects, believers commenced helping with the work related with religious objects. Many good examples of church, orthodox church, monastery and wooden religious architecture restoration can be given.
   However, the consciousness of congregations and the representatives of the clergy is not always at the appropriate standard. Frequently, the urge to make a profit, the use of wrong technology, or the dishonesty of contractors lead historic objects - the witnesses of our history - to destruction.
   To improve the level of protection of historic religious objects, the dialogue between society and the clergy has to be broadened, specialists’ activity in the field must be supported, and legal regulations need to be refined.
Kiev Pechersk Lavra


Romantic trip to castle (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Picturesque Svirzh

Świrscy herbu Szaława
 - is a located on the south of Lvov region on the way to Peremyshliany. Earlier Svirzh was a city and now it is only a big village surrounded by the river of the same name. The region is very lovely like Carpathian mountains in miniature, along the outskirts steep rocks of strange view can be  observed. The castle was built by the Svirz princes in XV century and at the second half of XVII century it was rebuilt by Halych chaste lain Oleksandr Centner. Square castle has 2 yards: a big one for residence and a small one for farmstead. Both yards are connected with stairs. The south  wing of the top yard ends with the square three-stepped towers. There is an entry tower on its axis to which the wooden bridge that is hang upon the Graff leads. The peculiarity of white stones and ornaments makes the castle one of the most interesting findings of defense architecture. If you are looking for a romantic, quite place, the castle is a very good option - you should definitely come here.
Bohdan Zhukiewicz


Sub-Carpathia... (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

"The Oil Trail of Carpathian and Galicia"
- preserve the relics of the world's oil industry.

    Sub-Carpathia, therein, Land of Gorlice has been the Land of pump jacks cobwebbed by oil rigs. It is where, in the 1850s, first oil wells, distilleries, and oil corporation used to come into being giving rise to the development of oil industry all over the world.
   The traces and symbols of hard and effective work of generations grew into the local landscape interlacing with natural values.

The Ethnographic Park, Folk Architecture Museum in Sanok.
Crude-oil Sector
    Oil industry exhibition presents an outline of oil mining history In Sub-Carpathian since the mid 19th century up to the present day. It consists of building, machines and tools from the closed mines in the Western Bieszczady Mts., the Carpathian foothills and the Lower Baskid Mts. One can trace there the successive stages of the development of what used to be the most important industry of that area staring from the oldest manual methods of mining oil from dug-wells, trough percussion drilling group pump system (
by means of treadmills and oil-well pump) and individual pump (pump cranes) to all-round treatment of the mined Wells, oil transport storage.


Castles in the region... (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Vyshnivets (Wiśniowiec)
Princes Wiśniowieckich
    Formerly a town, it is situated on the border of the Volhynia Region and the Podolia Region, by the Horyn River, about 25 km to the East from Załoźce...
    The first mentions about the settlement come from 1395, but under the name Vyshnivets the place was mentioned for the first time in the half of the 15th century. The town is known mainly from the battle which took place there on
28 April 1512, when under Vyshnivets the army of Rzeczpospolita conquered the Tatars’ army...
The grandson of the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Gediminas, Dymitr Korybut founded castles in Vyshnivets and in Zbarazh. When the first castle was built, he started to use the name Wiśniowiecki...
The famous duke Jerema Michał (1612-1651), the voivode of
Ruthenia, founded a church and a monastery of Carmelites (1645) in the town and fortified the castle which has already existed there..

barazh (Zbaraż)

Siedziba princes (książąt) Zbarskich and Wiśniowieckich
 - in the 13th century, at the top of the Old Zbarazh Mountain, a wooden fortified castle, which was destroyed during the Tatars invasion in 1589, was built…

    The second castle was raised by Zbarazh dukes - brothers Jerzy and Krzysztof. A design of the castle was prepared by the Italian architect Vincenzo Scamozzi in 1612, and construction works began in 1620. In 1627, after the death of Krzysztof and later, after the death of his brother Jerzy, the castle went into the hands of the Wiśniowiecki family (they came from the same Korybutowicz lineage as the Zbaraski family). New owners strengthened the castle’s defensive system, and enlarged a residential part - the palace…
   For Poles, a visit in the town is always an opportunity for emotion or, at least, it is an adventure with a thrill…
… We are recalling With Fire and Sword…

Buchach (Buczacz) 

    The castle was built in the 14th century by the  Buczacki family. Formerly, it was a wooden building, later - a brick one. Built on a triangle base it had an entrance through a gate tower and leading through a courtyard to a residential building...
   The Buczacki family settled in Yazlovetz, they adopted the name Jazłowiecki. Due to their efforts, the town and the castle enlarged...

Yazlovetz (Jazłowiec)
    A castle, and later unfortunately ruins of the castle, which survived till the outbreak of World War II, was built in the first half of the 16th century by Jerzy Jazłowiecki (1575), the Grand Crown Hetman, and beautified and strengthened by his son Mikołaj, the starost of Sniatyn...

Terebovl  (Trembowla)
    Thanks to Henryk Sienkiewicz every Pole knows what the
fortress in Kamianets Podilskyi was in the old Poland and what the history of the fortress is. It is a completely different story with respect to the castle in Terebovl, which was considered to be the next after Kamianets and served an important function in a defensive system of the Galicia land...
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
Photos Aleksander Mishuk, Mieczysław Kowal, Janusz Kurasz, Jurek Jaremczuk, (zakapior)


Royal free city Sandomierz... Old Town... (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

    Sandomierz is one of oldest and historically most important cities in Poland. The beginnings of settlement within the boundaries of the city and its adjoining area date back to the foremost times, which can be certified by numerous archaeological discoveries  made within the city and its surrounding area. The first traces of human presence in this area originate in the earlier period of the Stone Age - the Neolithic era (5200 B.C. - 1700 B.C.).
   However, the main development of the city appeared mainly in the period of the early Middle Ages. The development was possible, among others, due to the very attractive and convenient position of Sandomierz on important commercial trade routes - on the border point of three geographical regions: the Sandomierz Uplands, the Sandomierz Valley and the Lublin Uplands.
Bohdan Zhukiewicz (photo bo, zakapior)
translated by Justyna Rymarowicz


Treasures of architecture of the Podkarpacie region... (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

   The Podkarpacie region covers areas once inhabited by the richest and most influential families of the Kingdom of Poland. You can delight today in  the wonderful castles and residences they built. Even the most discerning tourist will find here something worthy of attention. Royal castles, palaces full of pomp, manors in the Old Polish style hidden amongst old parks, and also the majestic ruins of former family nests-all there can be seen, while travelling through the picturesque corners of the Podkarpacie. We will begin our wanderings by visiting two Royal Castles, fortifications from the Middle Ages, which used to defend the Przemyśl and Sanok territories.

- Humnicki family in Bircza
- Ostaszewski family in Wzdów
- Raczyński family in Zawada
- Skrzyńscki family (the Counts) in Nozdrzec
- Tyszkiewicz family (the Counts) in Werynia
- Wodzicki family (the Counts) in Tyczyn

Worked out by Zakapior
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photos (bo, zakapior)


Palanok from Zakarpattya (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)


Bohdan Zhukiewicz

Palanka - Palanok - Zamok Palanok - Munkács vára

Helena Zrinska - Jelena Zrinska - Ilona Zrínyi

    The paper describes the Palanok castle in the Zakarpattya in Western Ukraine. This is one of the most popular tourist sites in Ukraine,  famous not only of turbulent history and military architecture, but also interesting geology and incomparable scenic views. The recent castle was built in the XIVth century at the top of Sarmatia-Early Pannonian hornblende-pyroxene andesine plug, which rises 68 meters above the surrounding plain. The castle includes lower, central and upper parts with 130 rooms of total area about 14 000 m2. In 2008 over 100,000 visitors have arrived from Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary, which generated over 50, 000 EUR profit. Recently, the castle is a site of regional museum, modern painting gallery and thematic exhibition "The wooden churches of Zakarpattya".
photo Taras


Dębno (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

The castle in Dębno

    The castle situated on a small artificial hill was built in 1470-1480 by the Castellan of Krakow, Jakub Dębiński, and the Odrowąż coat of arms.
    The castle was owned by many owners, among them: Rupniewski, Wesselini, the Fraksztyn family, the Ostrogski family, Platenberg, the Tarło family, the Lubomirski family, and it was rebuilt and modernized almost as many times...
   Currently, it is a complex of four storied residential buildings covered with a high hipped roof. In the middle of the buildings there is a quadrilateral courtyard with wooden porches...
Bohdan Zhukiewicz (photo zakapior)


Trail of manor architecture - palace and park complex. Teams park - court and residential... (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Bolestraszyce Arboretum
Dzieduszycki family in Zarzecze
Krasicki family in Dubiecko
Załuski family in Iwonicz Zdrój
Mniszek family in Dukla

Here we find an unusual structure, called Kasztel Gładyszów.

   Manor was once the seat of ancestral Gładyszów. The  building was built in two stages. It is not known who was a builder, or do not know the architect of this extraordinary building. It was equipped with a whole system of loopholes. We most liked the unique sgraffitta.
   From the very beginning until the end of the seventeenth century was the residential representative. Until the end of the eighteenth century lived in the different owners.
After Gładyszach were here Sękiewiczowie or Kuźniarscy.
   Is it really any court served a defensive function, I do not know.
    This extremely interesting building resembles a fortified castle, but really it does not. Zbudowano it over a small slope, which reminded of the defensive nature castle. About his character defense also had to provide the window shooting. Is small windows chambers. In its immediate vicinity were placed tiny museum.

Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
photos Archiwum, Jan, (bo, zakapior)


Castles of Volyn... (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Lutsk (Łuck)
Луцьк, Łućk - Luceoria
lready in the early Middle Ages in the place of the  present Lutsk there was a Slavic town of the Dulebs’ tribe also called the Luczans. The name of the town was supposed to be derived from them but, according to other hypothesis, it comes from a word bow (Polish łuk) or Luka (Polish) referring to a meander of a river and riverside meadows surrounding the town...
   In 1073 Lutsk started to belong to the Vladimir Kingdom. In 1083 Lithuanians and Yotvingians attacked the town...
   In 1321 Gediminas attacked Lutsk and placed there his starost...

Ostroh (Ostróg) Острог
Rody; Ostrogskih, Zasławskih, Wiśniowieckih, Sanguszków, Jabłonowskih, Dubieńskih
 - from the beginning of the 15th century a town and  a castle by the Wilia River were the capital of the sovereign dukes of Russ - the Ostrogski family, in the 16th century they were the centre of the powerful latifundium - one of the biggest in Rzeczpospolita. At the turn of the 16th and 17th century, Ostroh was the centre of the cultural life in Volyn...
Not much remained of the former “magnitude.”...

- located on a low headland, surrounded by rivers’ backwaters  on the Ikwa River (basin of the Pripyat River) made famous by Słowacki. Together with Ostroh, Kremenets and Pochaiv it constitutes the most attractive region of Volyn...
   In the 11th century, Dubno belonged to the Rurikovich family...
   It is one of the oldest and the most interesting towns of Volyn. The first mention comes from The Ipatov Chronicle. It informs that in 1099, by a decision of the dukes of Rus, the town on the Ikwa River was given to the duke David Igorovitch. During the great invasion of Mongols in 1240-41 it was probably destroyed...
   In the 13th century the town belonged to the Kingdom of Galicia-Vladimir, and since 1340 - to Latvia. From the half of the 14th century a strong Polish garrison was stationing there...

Kremenets (Krzemieniec)
A royal castle and town.
- Kremenets is located in the valley among the hills called the  Kremenets Mountains. Due to these hills, the region seems
to be typical rather for the neighboring Podolia. This picturesque region was formerly called the Volhynian Switzerland...
   The place administratively belongs to the Ternopil Oblast. Certainly, it is the only Volhynian town present in the awareness of each generation of Poles due to Juliusz Słowacki. It is one of the most frequently visited tourist spots in Volyn...
   Unfortunately, it also attracts thieves. That is why one should avoid picking up casual guides to the car, especially when driving up the Bona Mountain...

Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photos Janusz Kurasz, Mieczysław Kowal, Antoni Hadała, Jurek Jaremczuk, Jurek Owczaruk, (zakapior)


Biecz (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

    In chronicles Biecz is named as early as in 11th century. Accordingly, Biecz had become a castellany which owned a great part of today Podkarpacie region. The town was a strategic military stronghold due to its location near the Polish border. Also, Biecz  served an important role as a trade and economy center as a result of its position at the crossroad between the north-south and west-east trade routes. Firstly, Biecz was a village and it was located as far as 500 meters from the preset town location. By the mid-13th century, the village granted the town rights and from that on Biecz became a city. At that time, the first walls were constructed, because initially the town hand been protected only by ditches. However, in 1399 the construction needed to be fixed. In the mid-14th century, Biecz had a population of over 3,000 inhabitants, while in the then Polish capital Cracow lived 10,000 people.
Bohdan Zhukiewicz (photo zakapior)
translated by Justyna Rymarowicz


Lubomirski Dukes (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Opracował Bohdan Zhukiewicz (photo bo, zakapior)

Kmita end Lubomirski family... in Nowy Wiśnicz...

in Rozwadów

in Przemyśl
in Przeworsk

The palace was bought by duchess Izabela Lubomirska for her beloved foster-son Henryk.
in Boguchwała

...the Ligęza and Lubomirski families... in Rzeszów...

... the Ľubovňa Castle - zamek Lubowniański (hrad v Starej Ľubovňi)...

in Lvov


Castles of the Podkarpacie Region /2 (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Royal castles, lordly palaces full of splendor, Old Polish manor - houses, hidden among aged parks, and majestic ruins of the former seats – all this may be seen while travelling through the picturesque corners of the PODKARPACIE Region.
... come, see, comment...
visit -

Przemyśl Royal Castle - Kazimierzowski

... raised after 1340, during the reign of King Casimir the Great, a brick castle in a Gothic style, of which only an entrance gate preserved…
…in 1616-1631, the castle was being rebuilt by Marcin Krasicki, the starost of Przemyśl…

fot. Kazimierz Błonar

Dzików, currently Tarnobrzeg

... a seat of the Tarnowski family...
... in 1522, Jan Spytek Tarnowski, Leliwa coat of arms from, Wielowieś near Tarnów bought Dzików...
... privilege of founding Tarnobrzeg in1593 given by king Sigismund III Vasa...
Stanisław Tarnowski starte to enlarge the castle...

Zawada near Dębica

... a seat of the families: Ligęza, Przependowski, Bieliński, Radziwiłł and Raczyński...
... the castle was built around 1656 by the Ligęza family…
... in 1819, Anna Radziwiłłówna gave a castle in Zawada as a dowry to her husband Atanazy Raczyński...

Sanok Royal Castle

... the castle was raised by starost Mikołaj Wolski in 1523-1548...
... During the times of its splendor, the castle was a sumptuous residence belonging to the King...
- as a property of Queen Bona, whose family armorial cartouche Sforzów exists till today...


... seat of the Ligęza and Lubomirski families...
... during the Swedish Deluge, after lawful King John Casmir had abandoned the country, an army, and faithful to the King, had in their hands four powerful fortresses: Jasna Góra, Lvov, Łańcut and Rzeszów...
... Grand Marshal of the Crown, Hieronim Sebastian Lubomirski, commanded from the Rzeszów castle...

worked out by Zakapior
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
(bo, ordynat, mk, zakapior)


Ruins of castles in the Podkarpacie Region... (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

visit with us...
see -

Ruins of the castle of the Fredropol

... history of the Fredro family...

Ruins of the Kamieniec castle in Odrzykoń

... history of the families: Kamieniecki, Boner, Firlej, Skotnicki...
... belongs to the oldest fortresses in the Podkarpacie Region...
… traces of the settlement from the period of the Lusatian culture discovered on the castle hill show it…
… the castle was inherited by the Firlej family (the lower castle) and by the Skotnicki family (the upper castle), history of this quarrel served Aleksander Fredro as a plot for The Revenge…

Ruins of the castle of the Kmita family on the Sobień mountain

... history of honorable Peter Kmita called Lunak...
... between Załuż and Monasterzec, on the hill densely covered with plants, there are the ruins of the Mediaeval Sobień castle…
… the castle was built in the 14th century during the reign of king Casimir the Great, the one who “left Poland in brick…”…

Ruins of the castle of the Węgierka

... history of the Pruchnicki and Pieniążek families...
... next to Pruchnik there is a grand, cylindrical defensive bastion. It is a remnant of the bastile castle (the 16th-17th century)…
… the Pieniążek family gave the castle its defensive character, and the residence remained in their hands until the beginning of the 18th century…

… the castle burnt and was not rebuilt any more…

Worked out był Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photos (bo, ordynat, kryzk, mk, zakapior)


Castles of the Podkarpacie Region /1 (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Royal castles, lordly palaces full of splendor, Old Polish manor - houses, hidden among aged parks, and majestic ruins of the former seats - all this may be seen while travelling through the picturesque corners of the PODKARPACIE Region.
... come, see, comment...

Baranów Sandomierski
The history of the generations – Leszczyński, Wiśniowiecki, Sanguszko, Lubomirski,  Małachowski, Potocki, Krasicki and Dolański…
... the castle in Baranów, the old seat of the Leszczyński family, is an impressive example of the Renaissance architecture, one of the best preserved ones in Europe
… a beautiful park...

Photo Paweł Rut


Ligęza, Koniecpolski, Tarnowski, Rey...
... localization of Przecław probably falls on the times of Bolesław the Chaste…
... the manor was in the hands of the Ligęza family till 1548...
... in the  17th century Przecław was bought by the Tarnowski family, who after 20 years sold it to Władysław Rey...

Photo Paweł Rut

... Pilecki, Stadnicki, Lubomirski, Potocki...
... the castle in Łańcut is one of the most beautiful, the best preserved and the most frequently visited castles…
... it was classified to the group of international monuments...
Stanisław Lubomirski
, whose wife was Izabela Czartoryska...


... the history of the family - ... Kmita "fief of Sobieńsk"... and Stadnicki...
… at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries, Lesko with the broad goods was bestowed to the Kmita family from Wiśnicz, Szreniawa coat of arms, by king Vladislaus Jagiełło…
... Lesko was one of many villages belonging to the Kmita family...

Krasicki, Modrzewski, Wojakowski, Tarło, Potocki, Piniński, Sapiecha...
... the castle in Krasiczyn,  one of the most beautiful treasures of Renaissance - Mannerist architecture, it belongs to the most beautiful castles in Europe...
... the fact that Sigismund III Vasa, Władysław IV, John Casimir and Augustus II visited the castle speaks about the castle’s past…

worked out by Zakapior
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
(Paweł Rut, Jan, bo, ordynat, mk, zakapior)


Castles in the region of Kresy end Podolia... (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Kamienets Podilskyi (Kamieniec Podolski)

    "On rocky slopes, as if growing from them, there are powerful walls and towers of an old town, in which nature and architects’ talent created a unique view, where a church and a Turkish minaret, a town hall and an Orthodox church stand next to each other, where each stone preserves in itself the voices of history”…
… A chronicle attributes the creation of the stone fortress to the Lithuanian dukes Koriatowicz, who reigned in the duchy in 60s-90s of the 14th century…
   A high, rocky bank of the Smotrych River
, a picturesque landscape, powerful towers with mysterious Latin inscriptions...

Khotyn (Chocim)

    Situated on a crossing of trade routes, Khotyn has always attracted the invaders’ attention.
… in order to protect Khotyn from the invaders, a fortress which survived centuries and which saw under its walls the army of the Ottoman Empire, insurgents of Mucha, national avengers of Detyna, warriors of Dmytro Vyshnevetsky, and Petro Doroshenko was built…
… Khotyn attracts tourists from all over the world; it is one of the oldest towns in Kresy, which not long ago celebrated its 1000th anniversary. At the beginning of the 11th century, Prince Vladimir I of Kiev
created a system of border fortifications on the West and South of the new state, including Khotyn…
Aleksander Mishuk

Holy Trinity Trenches (Okopy Trójcy Świętej)

On a long, rocky promontory near the mouth of the Zbruch River to the Dniester River, on a South-East edge of Galicia, and on the westernmost extent point of Tarnopol Voivodeship in the period of the Second Rzeczpospolita, there are ruins of the fortress from the 17th century, which became famous due to the colorful descriptions in The Un-Divine Comedy by Zygmunt Krasiński. It was there, in a literary vision of Krasiński, on the Holy Trinity Trenches, that aristocrats defended themselves from revolutionists, and the place became a symbol of the Polish conservatism and traditionalism.
   Since 1672, Kamianets Podilskyi, the impregnable fortress, was in the Turkish hands. In the same year, King Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki signed a disgraceful treaty in Buchach, giving the region of Podolia to the Turks.
Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
Photos Aleksander Mishuk, Mieczysław Kowal, Janusz Kurasz, Jurek Jaremczuk, (zakapior)


The Southern Castles (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

“Dunajec” castle in Niedzica

   In 1412 in the castle in Niedzica situated within the Hungarian border, Ladislaus Jagiello’s delegation paid the  Hungary 37 threescore of Prague pennies, in deposit 13 Spiš towns including Niedzica itself...
   In 1425 the castle belonged to a descendant of John Berzeviczy, Peter Schwarz from Łomnica, and after that time, it went into the hands of his son, John Schwarz. Berzeviczy’s castle must have been a strong fortress because in the 30’s of the 15th century the Hussites destroyed the neighboring area, but they even did not try to attack the fortress in Niedzica. In 1463 John pledged the castle to Emeryk Zápolya, who took it over permanently after a childless death of Berzeviczy...

Ruins of “Wronin” castle in Czorsztyn

   In the 14th century on a high rocky hill by the Dunajec River there was a watch tower in which Bolesław the Chaste with  his wife Kinga found a shelter while escaping the Tatars’ invasion. At the turn of the 13th century in the Northern part of the foundation, a detached round tower was erected on the rock. Not long after that, probably around 1350, Casimir the Great, striving for safety of the border with Hungary, erected a brick castle. In the following centuries the castle was a centre of the king’s authority and a seat of starosts appointed for life…

   Zawisza the Black had his seat there when he took up the Spiš County
Zhukiewicz Bohdan
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photos granted by Antoni Hadała, Piotr Hadała, (vico, bo, zakapior)


Castles in the Kresy... (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Bar castle
Bona Sfortia Dei gratia regina Poloniae
    The castle was built around 1380 by the Koriatowicz family. It was the Lithuanian ducal  family, which received this land from the Grand Duke of Lithuania - Algirdas. The conferment was approved anew by the Polish king Ladislaus Jagiello
 in 1386. At that time the locality was called Rov. The first castle was a wooden fortified building with two towers and a double brick-wall...
   After a death of the last person from the family (1430) the land was incorporated to the Crown and the castle was inhabited by a royal starost...

Międzybóż castle 
Меджибіж, dawniej Międzyboż, Międzybuże,
Mikołaj Sieniawski
herbu Leliwa, Hetman Wielki Koronny.
    A brick castle was built by the Koriatowicz family, who received the land from the Polish king Casimir the Great in 1366...
    The castle was built in the place of the former wooden borough burned by the Tatars in the 12th century. At that time, the castle was frequently attacked by the Tatars because it was situated between the routes of their assaults called Black Trail and Kuczman Trail.
Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photo; Jurek Jaremczuk, Jurek Owczaruk, (zakapior)


The Dunajec Valley Route (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

Wytrzyszczka Tropsztyn castle

On the left western bank of the Dunajec River, on a steep hill being a promontory of the Czchow Lake, 429 meters above  the sea level, there is the Tropsztyn Castle. It guarded a so called Sądecka Gate through which two important trade routes from Poland to Upper Hungary, i.e. Slovakia, lead: the water route and the inland route. From the beginning, Tropsztyn functioned as a private fortress, whose owners often lawlessly tried to take the control over these routes.
- the Ośmioróg family, also called the Gierałt family, was the first owners and the builders of the castle. The oldest preserved mention about the already bricked castle comes from 1382. However, there are presumptions that its beginnings reach the end of the 13th century.

Ruins, a castle and a tower in Czchów

- it is one of the oldest royal castles guarding a trade route leading to Hungary with a customs house recorded for the first  time in 1327. From the 14th century till the 17th century the castle was an administrative base of the royal goods - Czchów district existing since the first partition of Poland in 1772. The district embraced Czchów - the town reigned by the German law and villages: Stróża, Wola Stróska, Siemiechów.
   The beginnings of the castle situated by the Dunajec River on a hill on the right side of the town reach the times of reign of Wenceslaus II Premyslid (1292-1305). The oldest bricked element - a tall tower preserved almost in its full height (28 m) - was erected on the eastern, lower promontory of the wide hill separated by a moat from its remaining part.
Zhukiewicz Bohdan
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photo (bo)


Famous people from the history of Kresy (History of Galicia and Lodomeria, Zakarpacie, Podole, Wołyń...)

* King Bolesław the Bold
* King Casimir the Great
* Prince Konstanty Ostrogski
* King 
Stephen Báthory
* Prince Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski
* Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski
* Khmelnytsky Bohdan Zenobi
* King John Casimir
* Prince Jeremi Michał Wiśniowiecki
* King Jan III Sobieski

„Of chains and disgrace the mere thought abusive
Offends the honesty of free Podolanka,
Therefore, she grabs her child into her arms,
Like Scyths formerly in Tauryka priestesses,
Grabbing two knives stern for enemies,
Grand! (She called) my Fathers’ God,
And you their shadows! You have two victims,
Both innocent – accept both of them,
One will fall at the freedom’s grave;
The other - purer - at the altar of faith!”

* Anna Dorota Chrzanowska
   According to Chrzanowski’s last will, she was Anna Dorota von Frezen, so  she was German not Pole. For the first time the name Zofia was mentioned in 1828 by Zaborowski in his poem. Others called her Małgorzata.

Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz

translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

photo archiwum


You're visitor number:
Dictionary > - < UK < - > PL
Weather in
... selected information...


Europejski telefon ratunkowy

Arboretum i Zakład
w Bolestraszycach

Grupa Bieszczadzka GOPR

(+48) 13 46 32 204


The Museum
of Folk Architecture
in Sanok

Museum History
of Engineers
and Technicians
of Oil
and Gas Industry

National Park

Grupa Krynicka GOPR

(+48) 18 477 7444
(+48) 18 471 2933

Zamek Czorsztyn

Grupa Podhalańska GOPR

(+48) 18 / 267 68 80

Tatra National Park



(+48) 18 20 63 444

Invitation to co-operation


The new portal site became a fact! The website is going to promote regions of Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine, mainly the neighboring voivoidships, which possess a lot of cultural and regional similarities. Our site has not been fully developed yet, however we have the pleasure of presenting you already existing Polish, Ukrainian and English site. We are still working on Slovakian website.
We have a genuine desire to be wide - ranging, apolitical and reliable. The portal site was created to stay open and interactive. We will be pleased to see that the site’s users are keen on becoming our co-editors. We also would be glad to see that they are benevolent, but, in the same time they are able to spot any imperfections... We are going to co-operate with local establishments, agencies and organizations which are interested in economical and cultural development and which care about good neighborliness between the Border Land’s inhabitants. Every local or regional initiative, which will serve to the common good can bank on our support and promotion, as well as individuals who are associated with culture, regional development and advertisement.
We are eager to introduce different ways of advertising, such as banners, interviews and squibs. We guarantee a competitive prices. The editor board and the portal are linked with our colleagues from Ukraine and Slovakia through special links. Also we would like to gain a lot of friends and well-wishers, here, in Poland, whose opinions and suggestions will be gratified and discussed.

The new portal is now online. We would like to invite all advertisers and everyone interested to cooperate with us. We have lowest prices in Podkarpacie!
Just as we announced, we have started the portal. The web address became a fact. It might not be the shape that we have fully expected, however it is working and improvements will take place on the run. We are aware that many of the internet users might not know about us yet and many are being careful about our actions. That does not discourage us, just the opposite: it mobilizes us to work harder.
The portal is beginning to live its own life also in the languages of our dear neighbours: Ukraine and Slovakia. We are planning a large promotional campaign in the media. We do need co-workers, who would like to publish their works in Ukrainian and Slovak languages, treating about common issues of the region, or who would like to work as our representatives. Besides that, our portal is the least expensive and the most attractive place to advertise. Therefore, we would like to invite all interested advertisers to give us a try. Those, who have taken advantage of our offers so far are very satisfied and are collecting the first fruits of their cooperation with us. We ask all advertisers and those, who wish to publish promotional materials with us - we will work out the attractive pricing, conditions and timing for You. Any business entity interested in publishing information about their enterprise with us is welcome to contact or meet us. This invitation is comming from everyone involved in creation of;