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Baranów Sandomierski the castle and the park...
By Pogranicze Media
Published: 10.07.2012


Maria Karolina Zofia Felicja Leszczyńska she married King Louis XV of France.







Baranów Sandomierski
 


   
In 1354, the settlement was granted the city rights by Casimir the Great. In the 13th century, Baranów went into the hands of the Gozdawa family. In the times of Długosz, Jakub  Baranowski was its owner, and around 1480, it was owned by Jan Baranowski. By the end of the 15th century, Baranów with the neighboring landed property went into the hands of Stanisław Kurozwęcki. Kurozwęcki died in 1518. His daughter, Barbara, married Andrzej Górka. In 1568, Stanisław Górka sold the goods of Baranów to Rafał from Leszno Leszczyński. 10 years later, in 1579, Rafał Leszczyński gave the goods to his son, Jędrzej Leszczyński. After Jędrzej’s death in 1606, his son Rafał Leszczyński inherited Baranów.
    The town was developing due to cereal trade. By the end of the 16th century, craft, especially cloth manufacture, furriery and shoemaking, developed in Baranów Sandomierski. In 1677, the goods of Baranów were sold to Duke Dymitr Wiśniowiecki. After his death, Józef Karol Lubomirski married the widow. Around 1771, count Józef Potocki reigned in Baranów. In this period, Baranów had around 1200 inhabitants, the part of which was a Jewish population.
   Unfortunately, frequent overflows of the
Vistula
river made life in the town difficult.
The castle
who decorated the interiors and who for over one hundred years, from 1569 until 1677, resided in the castle. They belonged to the wealthiest families in Poland in the 16th and 17th century. Rafał (V) Leszczyński was one of the most famous people of his times. Being a  great orator, in Poland he was known as a tribune of the nobility. During the sejm in Piotrków in 1548, he insisted on king Sigismund Augustus’ divorce with Barbara Radziwiłłówna. In 1579, Rafał gave the goods of Baranów to his younger son Andrzej, the voivode of Brześć Kujawska, who built the Castle and founded a famous library there. The castle was a main residence of Andrzej Leszczyński, and King Stefan Batory is said to have visited it then several times. Baranów itself became an important centre of Reformation in Poland. Because of the high artistic value and a form of architectural and sculpture details, the castle in  Baranów was probably created by Santi Gucci and, after his death, was completed by the workshops under Santi Gucci’s influence. Sumptuous stuccowork ascribed to Jean Baptiste Falcon and preserved in the vault of the North-East bastion certainly come from the period of Rafał Leszczyński’s reigns. During the Swedish invasion in spring 1656, the Swedish king Charles Gustav met under Baranów the Lithuanian army commanded by Paweł Sapieha. However, Baranów was untouched, because Swedes harassed by Czarnecki withdrew in the direction of Zawichost. Rafał (X) was the last owner of the castle from the illustrious Leszczyński family. Stanisław, the future king of Poland, was his only son.

  
In 1677-1682, Dymitr Wiśniowiecki was an heir of the castle. During the short period of his reign, he did not introduce any changes in the castle.
    Duke Józef Karol Lubomirski, Śreniawa coat of arms, was the next owner of the castle. He partly rebuilt the castle and renovated the interiors, entrusting these works in 1695 to one of the most prominent architects who worked in Poland then, Tylman from Gameren. Between two bastions next to the Western wing, he added a gallery of paintings supported on open arcades of the ground floor. He also modernized the castle elevations. He designed sumptuous stucco decorations of the floor’s interiors. They are preserved till today in a so called Tylman’s Gallery and in the adjacent rooms. The castle of Baranów remained in the hands of the Lubomirski family from 1683 until 1720.
   Duke Paweł Sanguszko, Jacek Małachowski, Józef Potocki, Jan Krasicki were the following owners of the castle.
    Frequent changes of the owners protected the Baranów castle from bigger transformations in the 18th century. It preserved its Renaissance-Baroque character, which the Leszczyński and the Lubomirski family gave it. The Krasicki family renews the castle, but it is difficult to settle what was the nature of this renewal, because in the 19th century two fires destroyed almost the whole interior. Bishop Ignacy Krasicki is said to have frequently stayed in the castle by the end of the 18th century.
    On 24 September, 1849, the fire which destroyed the interiors burst out in the castle. Wooden ceilings, roofs, all movabilities including a library located in one of the castle bastions burnt. The Krasicki family could not afford to bring the mansion back its former splendor, and the last owners of the castle did not show much respect to the monuments which remained there.
    Irreparable devastation was done at that time and, when the Baranów goods entirely declined and were put up for auction; in 1867 they were bought by Feliks Dolański from Grębowo. The castle remained in the Dolański family’s hands until the World War II. At that time, in a corner room of the ground floor, next to the South-West bastion, a chapel decorated with stained-glass windows by Józef Mehoffer and a painting by Jacek Malczewski,  Immaculate Madonna, placed in the altar, came into being. The architectonic interior decoration of the chapel demonstrated significant signs of the Recession Style dominating at the beginning of the 20th century. Roman Dolański was the last owner of the castle
Worked out by Zakapior

translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz






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