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The Przemyśl Fortress
By Pogranicze Media
Published: 10.01.2011


The Museum of the Przemyśl

   Fortress was founded on the initiative of members of the Society of the 3rd Historical Galician Fortress Artillery Regiment named after Prince Kinsky and is a continuation of the permanent exhibition from the years 2002-2009 named the Museum of the Przemyśl Fortress, which was housed in the Garrison Club at ul. Grodzka 8.
   The present seat of the museum is located in the Sundry Crafts Gild at ul. Katedralna 6, the second entrance leads through the yard from Fredro Street.
    The museum houses collections coming from the area of the former Przemyśl Fortress from the 19th and 20th century.
   Three halls full of exhibits have been prepared for visitors. One can see, among other things, cold and fire weapons, soldiers' equipment, old photos, elements of armored equipment of forts, artillery bullets and fuses as well as various personal and usable items.
   Large objects, like an armored watchtower and part of an armored fighting tower as well as parts of blown-up cannons are located in the branch of the museum on the premises of the fort No XV Borek in Siedliska.

Švejk’s Monument
    On the 12 July 2008, on Saturday, the celebration of unveiling the monument of the Imperial and Royal Good Soldier Švejk, sitting on the ammunition box, took place. The monument was made by a sculptor of Przemyśl origin, Jacek Szpak. The casting of the figure was supervised by a well-known Przemyśl bell-founder Janusz Felczyński. After many years of efforts, Švejk finally sat in the Main Square in Przemyśl with his favorite beer-mug and a pipe.

Fort XVI "Zniesienie"
   The first fortification works started in Przemyśl areca in1854. Planned was the construction of an earthwork camp, which the form of two rings, was to surround the city. The works were stopped very fast, well already in 1855. Completed was only a part of planned defensive outworks, among others the entrenchment situated on the hill Zniesienie towering over the city, named "Fort Przemyśl". The "Fort Przemyśl" had symmetrical although untypical trace formed by a moat and an earth embankment. On the entire length of the embankment arranged were artillery and infantry posts, divided in a few places with traverses. In the centre of the foundation located was a barracks block of wooden-earth structure.
    After 1855, in the vicinity of the Zniesienie hill works were not carried on in the course of a lot of years. Only in 1878 two powder magazines and a guardroom building were built on slopes of the hill. Next works commenced in 1887. An almost entire core of the Stronghold Przemyśl was created then. On the place of the "Fort Przemyśl" an entirely new object came into existence - the fort XVI. Plans of the fortification built in 1887 were worked out on the base of a few plans prepared curlier, among others in 1876-1877. They were however modified to great extent.
   The fort "Zniesienie" was built in very uncommon form. Three  entrenchments a, b and c were connected with cornrow embankment and most creating the figure resembling the fragment of the slice of honey. On fort ramparts located were artillery positions divided with traverses, where anal bunkers for artillerymen. Each of three entrenchments had own barracks. Moreover, in the centre of the fort was built a mighty ammunition for storehouse. The bunkers in traverses were made in the very simple form: on the brick or stone underpinning arranged was a vault made of corrugated sheet metal and the whole was covered with earth. Barrack buildings were wooden, only with small masonry supplements. Ceilings of buildings were made in uncommon form: on two layers of beams (30x30 cm and 15x15) poured out was a 30 cm thick layer of concrete. The strongest structure had the ammunition storehouse cast entirely in concrete.
    A few years after completion it turned out that timber structure of barracks in the fort XVI started to decay and was endangered with collapsing. An order of the demolition of all wooden buildings was given. They were never rebuilt in brick form. On the fort left were, aside from the mighty ammunition storehouse, small bunkers, kitchens and toilets. The fort performed the role of an inter-entrenchment (the most important position) of fortification of the core of the Stronghold Przemyśl, becoming the central point of the Sector "Zniesienie", belonging to the I. Defensive Perimeter of the stronghold i.e. the fortification of the core on the south bank of the San river.
   In the time of fights for the Stronghold Przemyśl the core of the stronghold, contriving  the fort XVI, has not played particularly an essential role. Only on the part of the fort XVI located were position of anti-aircraft artillery. The bunker was blown up.
   Today the fort XVI "Zniesienie" is the target of walks for inhabitants of Przemyśl and tourist being one of best viewpoints to Przemyśl and surroundings. The fort is the subject of conservator preservation through the entry to the list of monuments of urban planning arrangement under the number A705/709.
Tomasz Idzikowski
translated by JB

Fort XI Duńkowiczki
 - was built between 1884 and 1886. It was almost identical with Fort XI "Orzechowce". However, it was modernized somewhat later. In the gun casemates added in the wings of the barracks newer-type cannons were placed. In the armored batteries movable armored turrets were added. The caponizes were not restricted.

The Fortress Water-Tower
    The tower comes from the times of Przemyśl Fortress. It supplied the Winna Góra Fort with water. The Winna Góra Fort included a radio station that provided communication with all the other forts of the Przemyśl Fortress. The supply of water consisted of underground tanks located of the hill of Winna Góra, from the side of St. August Street.
   The Tower is situated where Bolesław Chrobry and Monte Casino streets meet, in place where old ground batteries supporting the fort were located. Nowadays it is a belfry and a utility room for the Bishop Pelczar church that was raised next to it.

Fort V Grochowce
    Built between 1882-1886 on a pentagonal plan. It was a typical one-wall artillery fort. In the "neck" there were concrete barracks, and further down the fort, a double ammunition store. In front and in the "shoulders" artillery positions separated with traverses were placed, with alert shelters.
The moat was dfended from three caponiers.

Fort XV „Borek” in Siedliska
    In the vicinity of fort no. I, which is also located in Siedliska, is the armored fort XV „Borek” dating back to the years 1897-1900.
   Following trunk road number 28 towards Siedliska, after a kilometer and a half, turn left. The „Borek” Fort is leased by the 3rd Historical Galician Fort Artillery Regiment named after Prince Kinsky Association, which has been trying to restore the fort to its original state.
   The fort consists of, among other things, the already restored entrance gate, barracks connected with the main shelter, the casemate remnants with a restored observation site, as well as ruins of the armored battery. At the entrance to the fort there is a commemorative plaque honoring the Polish and American airmen, who fought for independence in 1920.

Fort VIII Łętownia in Kuńkowce
    It dates back to the years 1854-1855, when the Austrians built one of their artillery earthworks on a hill west of Przemyśl. The fort obtained its present shape between 1881 and 1882.
   The area of the fort is well-developed. During the season one can see an interesting exhibition inside devoted to the Fortress of Przemyśl. How to get to the fort: from the Przemyśl-Dynów road turn right in Kuńkowce and go up the road following the signs of the black fortress route.
   From the district called Lipowica (where the routes cross) turn left and follow the black fortress route to the peak and then downhill towards the fort.

Fort III Łuczyce
    The fort was probably built already after the 1914 mobilization in place of the previous earthen and timbered bank. On a pentagonal plan, in the "neck" there were the barracks, in the "shoulders" artillery positions separated with traverses, and in the "head", a position for the infantry and light artillery. In the moat there were two detached caponizes and an alert shelter.

opracował Bohdan Zhukiewicz
photo Kazimierz BŁonar (zakapior)

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