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There is a great mess with relation to the name Ukraine...
By Pogranicze Galicja
Published: 12.12.2015

Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

A topic for discussion…

   There is a question that ought to be asked, namely what former Rus, especially Kievan Rus', has in common with present Ukraine. Is this the same nation? Descendants of the same people?.
    The experts claim that Kievan Rus' is related to Russia, Belorussia and Ukraine in the same way as Franks are related to France and Germany.
   The word Ukraine has a very old origin; each duchy of southern Rus had its Ukraine that is a territory situated at the border land.
   The first mention about Ukraine appeared in the years 1111-1200 in “Chronicle of Kiev,” in which the anonymous chronicler describing a death of Wlodzimierz, duke of Pereyaslav and the hero of fights against Polovtsy, noted: “And all Pereyaslavians cried after him, Ukraine mourned him greately”.

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Summary
By W. Gerycz
Published: 10.12.2015

dr Wlodzimierz Gerycz
dr Vasyl Slobodian


Issues and tendencies of protecting historic religious buildings in Ukraine

   Since time immemorial Ukraine has been the center of Eastern Christianity. Many temples were built in Kiev and towns nearby. The ones which survived until this day are treated as the most valuable national historic objects. In the whole country, despite the fact that religious life was being ruined
in various periods, especially in the east during Soviet times, many religious historic objects exist.

   After Ukraine regained independence, the number of voices favoring the protection of cultural heritage began increasing. An appropriate legislation system was created, the state and individual regions readily started joining in to protect and restore historic objects, believers commenced helping with the work related with religious objects. Many good examples of church, orthodox church, monastery and wooden religious architecture restoration can be given.
   However, the consciousness of congregations and the representatives of the clergy is not always at the appropriate standard. Frequently, the urge to make a profit, the use of wrong technology, or the dishonesty of contractors lead historic objects - the witnesses of our history - to destruction.
   To improve the level of protection of historic religious objects, the dialogue between society and the clergy has to be broadened, specialists’ activity in the field must be supported, and legal regulations need to be refined.
Kiev Pechersk Lavra

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Royal free city Sandomierz... Old Town...
By Pogranicze Media
Published: 10.09.2011

    Sandomierz is one of oldest and historically most important cities in Poland. The beginnings of settlement within the boundaries of the city and its adjoining area date back to the foremost times, which can be certified by numerous archaeological discoveries  made within the city and its surrounding area. The first traces of human presence in this area originate in the earlier period of the Stone Age - the Neolithic era (5200 B.C. - 1700 B.C.).
   However, the main development of the city appeared mainly in the period of the early Middle Ages. The development was possible, among others, due to the very attractive and convenient position of Sandomierz on important commercial trade routes - on the border point of three geographical regions: the Sandomierz Uplands, the Sandomierz Valley and the Lublin Uplands.
Bohdan Zhukiewicz (photo bo, zakapior)
translated by Justyna Rymarowicz

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Sub-Carpathia...
By Pogranicze Galicja
Published: 08.09.2011

"The Oil Trail of Carpathian and Galicia"
- preserve the relics of the world's oil industry.

    Sub-Carpathia, therein, Land of Gorlice has been the Land of pump jacks cobwebbed by oil rigs. It is where, in the 1850s, first oil wells, distilleries, and oil corporation used to come into being giving rise to the development of oil industry all over the world.
   The traces and symbols of hard and effective work of generations grew into the local landscape interlacing with natural values.

The Ethnographic Park, Folk Architecture Museum in Sanok.
Crude-oil Sector
    Oil industry exhibition presents an outline of oil mining history In Sub-Carpathian since the mid 19th century up to the present day. It consists of building, machines and tools from the closed mines in the Western Bieszczady Mts., the Carpathian foothills and the Lower Baskid Mts. One can trace there the successive stages of the development of what used to be the most important industry of that area staring from the oldest manual methods of mining oil from dug-wells, trough percussion drilling group pump system (
by means of treadmills and oil-well pump) and individual pump (pump cranes) to all-round treatment of the mined Wells, oil transport storage.
Nadia

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Treasures of architecture of the Podkarpacie region...
By Pogranicze Media
Published: 10.08.2011

   The Podkarpacie region covers areas once inhabited by the richest and most influential families of the Kingdom of Poland. You can delight today in  the wonderful castles and residences they built. Even the most discerning tourist will find here something worthy of attention. Royal castles, palaces full of pomp, manors in the Old Polish style hidden amongst old parks, and also the majestic ruins of former family nests-all there can be seen, while travelling through the picturesque corners of the Podkarpacie. We will begin our wanderings by visiting two Royal Castles, fortifications from the Middle Ages, which used to defend the Przemyśl and Sanok territories.

Palaces
- Humnicki family in Bircza
- Ostaszewski family in Wzdów
- Raczyński family in Zawada
- Skrzyńscki family (the Counts) in Nozdrzec
- Tyszkiewicz family (the Counts) in Werynia
- Wodzicki family (the Counts) in Tyczyn

Worked out by Zakapior
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photos (bo, zakapior)

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Palanok from Zakarpattya
By Pogranicze Galicja
Published: 20.07.2011


Więcej;
https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zamek_Palanka
http://ua.pogranicze.eu/index.php?categoryid=34&p2_start=20

Bohdan Zhukiewicz


MUKACHEVO castle
Palanka - Palanok - Zamok Palanok - Munkács vára

Helena Zrinska - Jelena Zrinska - Ilona Zrínyi

    The paper describes the Palanok castle in the Zakarpattya in Western Ukraine. This is one of the most popular tourist sites in Ukraine,  famous not only of turbulent history and military architecture, but also interesting geology and incomparable scenic views. The recent castle was built in the XIVth century at the top of Sarmatia-Early Pannonian hornblende-pyroxene andesine plug, which rises 68 meters above the surrounding plain. The castle includes lower, central and upper parts with 130 rooms of total area about 14 000 m2. In 2008 over 100,000 visitors have arrived from Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary, which generated over 50, 000 EUR profit. Recently, the castle is a site of regional museum, modern painting gallery and thematic exhibition "The wooden churches of Zakarpattya".
photo Taras



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Dębno
By Pogranicze Media
Published: 20.07.2011

The castle in Dębno

    The castle situated on a small artificial hill was built in 1470-1480 by the Castellan of Krakow, Jakub Dębiński, and the Odrowąż coat of arms.
    The castle was owned by many owners, among them: Rupniewski, Wesselini, the Fraksztyn family, the Ostrogski family, Platenberg, the Tarło family, the Lubomirski family, and it was rebuilt and modernized almost as many times...
   Currently, it is a complex of four storied residential buildings covered with a high hipped roof. In the middle of the buildings there is a quadrilateral courtyard with wooden porches...
Bohdan Zhukiewicz (photo zakapior)

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Trail of manor architecture - palace and park complex. Teams park - court and residential...
By Pogranicze Media
Published: 10.07.2011

Bolestraszyce Arboretum
Dzieduszycki family in Zarzecze
Krasicki family in Dubiecko
Załuski family in Iwonicz Zdrój
Mniszek family in Dukla



http://pl.pogranicze.eu/index.php?categoryid=67

Szymbark
Here we find an unusual structure, called Kasztel Gładyszów.

   Manor was once the seat of ancestral Gładyszów. The  building was built in two stages. It is not known who was a builder, or do not know the architect of this extraordinary building. It was equipped with a whole system of loopholes. We most liked the unique sgraffitta.
   From the very beginning until the end of the seventeenth century was the residential representative. Until the end of the eighteenth century lived in the different owners.
After Gładyszach were here Sękiewiczowie or Kuźniarscy.
   Is it really any court served a defensive function, I do not know.
    This extremely interesting building resembles a fortified castle, but really it does not. Zbudowano it over a small slope, which reminded of the defensive nature castle. About his character defense also had to provide the window shooting. Is small windows chambers. In its immediate vicinity were placed tiny museum.


Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
photos Archiwum, Jan, (bo, zakapior)

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Romantic trip to castle
By Pogranicze Galicja
Published: 10.07.2011

Picturesque Svirzh
Świrscy herbu Szaława
 - is a located on the south of Lvov region on the way to Peremyshliany. Earlier Svirzh was a city and now it is only a big village surrounded by the river of the same name. The region is very lovely like Carpathian mountains in miniature, along the outskirts steep rocks of strange view can be  observed. The castle was built by the Svirz princes in XV century and at the second half of XVII century it was rebuilt by Halych chaste lain Oleksandr Centner. Square castle has 2 yards: a big one for residence and a small one for farmstead. Both yards are connected with stairs. The south  wing of the top yard ends with the square three-stepped towers. There is an entry tower on its axis to which the wooden bridge that is hang upon the Graff leads. The peculiarity of white stones and ornaments makes the castle one of the most interesting findings of defense architecture. If you are looking for a romantic, quite place, the castle is a very good option - you should definitely come here.
Bohdan Zhukiewicz

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Biecz
By Pogranicze Media
Published: 10.06.2011

    In chronicles Biecz is named as early as in 11th century. Accordingly, Biecz had become a castellany which owned a great part of today Podkarpacie region. The town was a strategic military stronghold due to its location near the Polish border. Also, Biecz  served an important role as a trade and economy center as a result of its position at the crossroad between the north-south and west-east trade routes. Firstly, Biecz was a village and it was located as far as 500 meters from the preset town location. By the mid-13th century, the village granted the town rights and from that on Biecz became a city. At that time, the first walls were constructed, because initially the town hand been protected only by ditches. However, in 1399 the construction needed to be fixed. In the mid-14th century, Biecz had a population of over 3,000 inhabitants, while in the then Polish capital Cracow lived 10,000 people.
Bohdan Zhukiewicz (photo zakapior)
translated by Justyna Rymarowicz

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