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Spissky Hrad - photo Bohdan Zhukiewicz

Palanok from UA
By pogranicze
Published: 15.11.2013

Bohdan Zhukiewicz


   The paper describes the Palanok castle in the Zakarpattya in Western Ukraine. This is one of the most popular tourist sites in Ukraine, famous not only of turbulent history and military architecture, but also interesting geology and incomparable scenic views. The recent castle was built in the XIVth century at the top of Sarmatia-Early Pannonian hornblende-pyroxene andesine plug, which rises 68 meters above the surrounding plain. The castle includes lower, central and upper parts with 130 rooms of total area about 14 000 m2. In 2008 over 100,000 visitors have arrived from Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary, which generated over 50, 000 EUR profit. Recently, the castle is a site of regional museum, modern painting gallery and thematic exhibition "The wooden churches of Zakarpattya".

photo (Jan, Zakapior)


Wooden Tserkvas of the Carpathian Region - UNESCO from UA
By pogranicze
Published: 10.08.2013

   Descent of the Holy Spirit Church, Potelych. Built in (1502), this is the oldest tserkva of the list.

Bohdan Zhukiewicz
   These tserkvas were built between the 16th and 19th centuries to serve the Eastern Orthodox and Greek Catholic faiths, and were made from the timber of the great forests which covered most lands in Europe at that time. The location of most of them in remote rural villages in the Carpathian Region, between Poland and Ukraine, helped them to survive centuries of plundering and fire.
Zhovkva - 1720, Potelych - 1502, Drohobych - 17th, Nyzhniy Verbizh - 1808, Yasynia - 1824, Rohatyn - 16th,
Matkiv - 1838, Uzhok - 1745,
photo; Aleksander, Juri, Bohdan, Zakapior


Ukraine - Zakarpattya Region
By pogranicze
Published: 10.07.2013

*1. The church was originally constructed in 1777 in the village of Shelestovo near the city of Mukachevo,
- and was dedicated to Saint Michael. In 1927 the church was moved to Mukachevo, where it was later neglected during the early Soviet period. The church was transferred to the Uzhgorod museum in the 1970's to form the centrepiece of the museum's collection of Transcarpathian folk buildings.
    The church is an outstanding example of the Lemko style of architecture, with its three onion domes arranged with the highest above the narthex (entrance area) a middle dome above the nave and the lowest dome above the sanctuary. There are only a few remaining examples of the Lemko architectural style in Ukraine, since the style is more commonly seen further west in the Carpathians in what today are Slovakia and Poland. Three Lemko churches were moved to what today is the Czech Republic while Transcarpathia was part of Czechoslovakia between the World Wars. Two other Lemko churches which are still in Ukraine have been transferred to the Outdoor Museums in the capital Kiev and in Lviv. A further example of the style is in the town of Svalyava, where the large church of St. Nicholas can be seen.
Bohdan Zhukiewicz
photo; Zakapior

*2. This Greek Catholic wooden church stands in the Outdoor Museum of Folk Architecture in Uzhgorod - 1745.

The Carpathian Hutsul


By pogranicze
Published: 05.08.2011

"The Oil Trail of Carpathian and Galicia"
- preserve the relics of the world's oil industry.

    Sub-Carpathia, therein, Land of Gorlice has been the Land of pump jacks cobwebbed by oil rigs. It is where, in the 1850s, first oil wells, distilleries, and oil corporation used to come into being giving rise to the development of oil industry all over the world.
   The traces and symbols of hard and effective work of generations grew into the local landscape interlacing with natural values.

The Ethnographic Park, Folk Architecture Museum in Sanok.
Crude-oil Sector
    Oil industry exhibition presents an outline of oil mining history In Sub-Carpathian since the mid 19th century up to the present day. It consists of building, machines and tools from the closed mines in the Western Bieszczady Mts., the Carpathian foothills and the Lower Baskid Mts. One can trace there the successive stages of the development of what used to be the most important industry of that area staring from the oldest manual methods of mining oil from dug-wells, trough percussion drilling group pump system (
by means of treadmills and oil-well pump) and individual pump (pump cranes) to all-round treatment of the mined Wells, oil transport storage.


There is a great mess with relation to the name Ukraine...
By admin
Published: 25.07.2010

Zhukiewicz Bohdan
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

A topic for discussion…

   There is a question that ought to be asked, namely what former Rus, especially Kievan Rus', has in common with present Ukraine. Is this the same nation? Descendants of the same people?.
    The experts claim that Kievan Rus' is related to Russia, Belorussia and Ukraine in the same way as Franks are related to France and Germany.
   The word Ukraine has a very old origin; each duchy of southern Rus had its Ukraine that is a territory situated at the border land.
   The first mention about Ukraine appeared in the years 1111-1200 in “Chronicle of Kiev,” in which the anonymous chronicler describing a death of Wlodzimierz, duke of Pereyaslav and the hero of fights against Polovtsy, noted: “And all Pereyaslavians cried after him, Ukraine mourned him greately”.


Famous people from the history of Kresy
By admin
Published: 05.07.2010

„Of chains and disgrace the mere thought abusive
Offends the honesty of free Podolanka,
Therefore, she grabs her child into her arms,
Like Scyths formerly in Tauryka priestesses,
Grabbing two knives stern for enemies,
Grand! (She called) my Fathers’ God,
And you their shadows! You have two victims,
Both innocent – accept both of them,
One will fall at the freedom’s grave;
The other - purer - at the altar of faith!”

King Bolesław the Bold
King Casimir the Great
Prince Konstanty Ostrogski
Stephen Báthory
Prince Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski
Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski
Khmelnytsky Bohdan Zenobi
King John Casimir
Prince Jeremi Michał Wiśniowiecki
King Jan III Sobieski

Anna Dorota Chrzanowska
According to Chrzanowski’s last will, she was Anna Dorota von Frezen, so  she was German not Pole. For the first time the name Zofia was mentioned in 1828 by Zaborowski in his poem. Others called her Małgorzata.

Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz

translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

photo (bo)


Castles of the Podkarpacie Region /2
By admin
Published: 25.06.2010

Royal castles, lordly palaces full of splendor, Old Polish manor - houses, hidden among aged parks, and majestic ruins of the former seats – all this may be seen while travelling through the picturesque corners of the PODKARPACIE Region.
... come, see, comment...
visit -

Przemyśl Royal Castle - Kazimierzowski

... raised after 1340, during the reign of King Casimir the Great, a brick castle in a Gothic style, of which only an entrance gate preserved…
…in 1616-1631, the castle was being rebuilt by Marcin Krasicki, the starost of Przemyśl…

fot. Kazimierz Błonar

Dzików, currently Tarnobrzeg

... a seat of the Tarnowski family...
... in 1522, Jan Spytek Tarnowski, Leliwa coat of arms from, Wielowieś near Tarnów bought Dzików...
... privilege of founding Tarnobrzeg in1593 given by king Sigismund III Vasa...
Stanisław Tarnowski starte to enlarge the castle...

Zawada near Dębica

... a seat of the families: Ligęza, Przependowski, Bieliński, Radziwiłł and Raczyński... 
... the castle was built around 1656 by the Ligęza family…
... in 1819, Anna Radziwiłłówna gave a castle in Zawada as a dowry to her husband Atanazy Raczyński...

Sanok Royal Castle

... the castle was raised by starost Mikołaj Wolski in 1523-1548...
... During the times of its splendor, the castle was a sumptuous residence belonging to the King...
- as a property of Queen Bona, whose family armorial cartouche Sforzów exists till today...


... seat of the Ligęza and Lubomirski families...
... during the Swedish Deluge, after lawful King John Casmir had abandoned the country, an army, and faithful to the King, had in their hands four powerful fortresses: Jasna Góra, Lvov, Łańcut and Rzeszów...
... Grand Marshal of the Crown, Hieronim Sebastian Lubomirski, commanded from the Rzeszów castle...

worked out by Zakapior
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
(bo, ordynat, mk, zakapior)


Castles in the Roztochia, and farther the Region of Volhynia and the Region of Podolia
By admin
Published: 05.06.2010

Zhovkva (Żółkiew)

Zhovkva is a town full of monuments, Situated in the Roztochia - 34 km from Lvov. Founded in 1597 by Stanisław Żółkiewski, the Field Crown Hetman. It was the private town. It was granted city rights in 1603. Next, by heirdom, it became the property of his grandson, King John III Sobieski, it also belonged respectively to the Daniłowicz family and to the Radziwiłł family....
Zhovkva was a favorite residence of John III Sobieski. The king strengthened the town with modern fortifications, he was also decorating it in a Baroque style, he brought there his numerous war trophies...
Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


    Olesko is a town situated around 70 km from
Lvov (not far from Pidhirsti and Zolochiv), famous mainly for a castle, a church and a monastery of the Capuchins and a former Holy Trinity Catholic church. For the first time, Olesko appeared in the written sources from 1372. The castle, situated on a hill overlooking the neighboring plain, was built in the 14th century by Galician Volhynian dukes and was many times destroyed by the Tatars. In 1432, the castle was conquered by Jagiełło, who gave it to Jan of Sienno. After the Sienieński family, the Herbut family, later the Kamieniecki family, and at last the Daniłowicz families were the next owners of the castle...
Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

Pidhirtsi (Podhorce)

    One of the most precious palaces and garden complexes in the Kresy, in the type of villa castello. The composition is based on numerous connections between the view and the surroundings. The palace is situated in a way which enables one to see from the representative rooms and from the garden terraces the boundless plains of the Volhynia Region, and the palace itself is visible from the Volhynia Region for many kilometers...
Władysław of Varna bestowed the goods of Pidhirtsi and Zahirtsi to Janusz Podhorecki...
Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

Zolochiv (Złoczów)

    - situated to the East from
Lvov on a Road to Ternopil, relatively not far from Pidhirtsi and Olesko.
During the times of Sigismund the Old, Wladysław Sieniński, whose town was granted the Magdeburg Rights in 1523, was the owner of the castle. The Górka family of Greater Poland was the next owners of the castle, and since 1592, Marek Sobieski - the grandfather of King John III Sobieski - owned the castle...
Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


The castle was built in 1630-1635 by Grand Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski. A two-storey residential building in the form of a palace with a big courtyard decorated with arcades, casemates and a tower was built on a pentagon. The whole was surrounded by walls and defensive shafts with ramparts and a moat. An entrance led through a bridge above the moat and through a gate.

Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
Photos Aleksander Mishuk, Mieczysław Kowal, Janusz Kurasz, Jurek Jaremczuk, (zakapior)


Ruins of castles in the Podkarpacie Region...
By admin
Published: 25.05.2010

visit with us...
see -

Ruins of the castle of the Fredropol

... history of the Fredro family...

Ruins of the Kamieniec castle in Odrzykoń

... history of the families: Kamieniecki, Boner, Firlej, Skotnicki...
... belongs to the oldest fortresses in the Podkarpacie Region...
… traces of the settlement from the period of the Lusatian culture discovered on the castle hill show it…
… the castle was inherited by the Firlej family (the lower castle) and by the Skotnicki family (the upper castle), history of this quarrel served Aleksander Fredro as a plot for The Revenge…

Ruins of the castle of the Kmita family on the Sobień mountain

... history of honorable Peter Kmita called Lunak...
... between Załuż and Monasterzec, on the hill densely covered with plants, there are the ruins of the Mediaeval Sobień castle …
… the castle was built in the 14th century during the reign of king Casimir the Great, the one who “left Poland in brick…”…

Ruins of the castle of the Węgierka

... history of the Pruchnicki and Pieniążek families...
... next to Pruchnik there is a grand, cylindrical defensive bastion. It is a remnant of the bastile castle (the 16th-17th century)…
…the Pieniążek family gave the castle its defensive character, and the residence remained in their hands until the beginning of the 18th century…

… the castle burnt and was not rebuilt any more …

Worked out był Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photos (bo, ordynat, kryzk, mk, zakapior)

comment -


Castles in the region of Podolia 2
By admin
Published: 05.05.2010

Zbarazh (Zbaraż)

 - In the 13th century, at the top of the Old Zbarazh Mountain, a wooden fortified castle, which was destroyed during the Tatars invasion in 1589, was built…

The second castle was raised by Zbarazh dukes – brothers Jerzy and Krzysztof. A design of the castle was prepared by the Italian architect Vincenzo Scamozzi in 1612, and construction works began in 1620. In 1627, after the death of Krzysztof and later, after the death of his brother Jerzy, the castle went into the hands of the Wiśniowiecki family (they came from the same Korybutowicz lineage as the Zbaraski family). New owners strengthened the castle’s defensive system, and enlarged a residential part – the palace…
For Poles, a visit in the town is always an opportunity for emotion or, at least, it is an adventure with a thrill…
… We are recalling With Fire and Sword…
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

Buchach (Buczacz)

 The castle was built in the 14th century by the Buczacki family. Formerly, it was a wooden building, later – a brick one. Built on a triangle base it had an entrance through a gate tower and leading through a courtyard to a residential building...
The Buczacki family settled in Yazlovetz, they adopted the name Jazłowiecki. Due to their efforts, the town and the castle enlarged...
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

Yazlovetz (Jazłowiec)

 A castle, and later unfortunately ruins of the castle, which survived till the outbreak of World War II, was built in the first half of the 16th century by Jerzy Jazłowiecki (1575), the Grand Crown Hetman, and beautified and strengthened by his son Mikołaj, the starost of Sniatyn...
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

Terebovl  (Trembowla)

 Thanks to Henryk Sienkiewicz every Pole knows what the
fortress in Kamianets Podilskyi was in the old Poland and what the history of the fortress is. It is a completely different story with respect to the castle in Terebovl, which was considered to be the next after Kamianets and served an important function in a defensive system of the Galicia land...
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

Vyshnivets (Wiśniowiec)

 Formerly a town, it is situated on the border of the Volhynia Region and the Podolia Region, by the Horyn River, about 25 km to the East from Załoźce...
The first mentions about the settlement come from 1395, but under the name Vyshnivets the place was mentioned for the first time in the half of the 15th century. The town is known mainly from the battle which took place there on
28 April 1512, when under Vyshnivets the army of Rzeczpospolita conquered the Tatars’ army...
The grandson of the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Gediminas, Dymitr Korybut founded castles in Vyshnivets and in Zbarazh. When the first castle was built, he started to use the name Wiśniowiecki...
The famous duke Jerema Michał (1612-1651), the voivode of
Ruthenia, founded a church and a monastery of Carmelites (1645) in the town and fortified the castle which has already existed there…
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
Photos Aleksander Mishuk, Mieczysław Kowal, Janusz Kurasz, Jurek Jaremczuk, (zakapior)


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Olszanica - photo (zakapior)