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Spissky Hrad - photo Bohdan Zhukiewicz

Articles
Sub-Carpathia...
By pogranicze
Published: 05.08.2011

"The Oil Trail of Carpathian and Galicia"
- preserve the relics of the world's oil industry.

    Sub-Carpathia, therein, Land of Gorlice has been the Land of pump jacks cobwebbed by oil rigs. It is where, in the 1850s, first oil wells, distilleries, and oil corporation used to come into being giving rise to the development of oil industry all over the world.
   The traces and symbols of hard and effective work of generations grew into the local landscape interlacing with natural values.

The Ethnographic Park, Folk Architecture Museum in Sanok.
Crude-oil Sector
    Oil industry exhibition presents an outline of oil mining history In Sub-Carpathian since the mid 19th century up to the present day. It consists of building, machines and tools from the closed mines in the Western Bieszczady Mts., the Carpathian foothills and the Lower Baskid Mts. One can trace there the successive stages of the development of what used to be the most important industry of that area staring from the oldest manual methods of mining oil from dug-wells, trough percussion drilling group pump system (
by means of treadmills and oil-well pump) and individual pump (pump cranes) to all-round treatment of the mined Wells, oil transport storage.

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There is a great mess with relation to the name Ukraine...
By admin
Published: 25.07.2010

Zhukiewicz Bohdan
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

A topic for discussion…

   There is a question that ought to be asked, namely what former Rus, especially Kievan Rus', has in common with present Ukraine. Is this the same nation? Descendants of the same people?.
    The experts claim that Kievan Rus' is related to Russia, Belorussia and Ukraine in the same way as Franks are related to France and Germany.
   The word Ukraine has a very old origin; each duchy of southern Rus had its Ukraine that is a territory situated at the border land.
   The first mention about Ukraine appeared in the years 1111-1200 in “Chronicle of Kiev,” in which the anonymous chronicler describing a death of Wlodzimierz, duke of Pereyaslav and the hero of fights against Polovtsy, noted: “And all Pereyaslavians cried after him, Ukraine mourned him greately”.

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Famous people from the history of Kresy
By admin
Published: 05.07.2010

„Of chains and disgrace the mere thought abusive
Offends the honesty of free Podolanka,
Therefore, she grabs her child into her arms,
Like Scyths formerly in Tauryka priestesses,
Grabbing two knives stern for enemies,
Grand! (She called) my Fathers’ God,
And you their shadows! You have two victims,
Both innocent – accept both of them,
One will fall at the freedom’s grave;
The other - purer - at the altar of faith!”

King Bolesław the Bold
King Casimir the Great
Prince Konstanty Ostrogski
King 
Stephen Báthory
Prince Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski
Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski
Khmelnytsky Bohdan Zenobi
King John Casimir
Prince Jeremi Michał Wiśniowiecki
King Jan III Sobieski

Anna Dorota Chrzanowska
According to Chrzanowski’s last will, she was Anna Dorota von Frezen, so  she was German not Pole. For the first time the name Zofia was mentioned in 1828 by Zaborowski in his poem. Others called her Małgorzata.

Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz

translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


photo (bo)

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Castles of the Podkarpacie Region /2
By admin
Published: 25.06.2010

Royal castles, lordly palaces full of splendor, Old Polish manor - houses, hidden among aged parks, and majestic ruins of the former seats – all this may be seen while travelling through the picturesque corners of the PODKARPACIE Region.
... come, see, comment...
visit - http://pogranicze.eu/pl/gallery/

Przemyśl Royal Castle - Kazimierzowski

... raised after 1340, during the reign of King Casimir the Great, a brick castle in a Gothic style, of which only an entrance gate preserved…
…in 1616-1631, the castle was being rebuilt by Marcin Krasicki, the starost of Przemyśl…

fot. Kazimierz Błonar

Dzików, currently Tarnobrzeg

... a seat of the Tarnowski family...
... in 1522, Jan Spytek Tarnowski, Leliwa coat of arms from, Wielowieś near Tarnów bought Dzików...
... privilege of founding Tarnobrzeg in1593 given by king Sigismund III Vasa...
...
Michał
Stanisław Tarnowski starte to enlarge the castle...


Zawada near Dębica

... a seat of the families: Ligęza, Przependowski, Bieliński, Radziwiłł and Raczyński... 
... the castle was built around 1656 by the Ligęza family…
... in 1819, Anna Radziwiłłówna gave a castle in Zawada as a dowry to her husband Atanazy Raczyński...


Sanok Royal Castle

... the castle was raised by starost Mikołaj Wolski in 1523-1548...
... During the times of its splendor, the castle was a sumptuous residence belonging to the King...
- as a property of Queen Bona, whose family armorial cartouche Sforzów exists till today...


Rzeszów

... seat of the Ligęza and Lubomirski families...
... during the Swedish Deluge, after lawful King John Casmir had abandoned the country, an army, and faithful to the King, had in their hands four powerful fortresses: Jasna Góra, Lvov, Łańcut and Rzeszów...
... Grand Marshal of the Crown, Hieronim Sebastian Lubomirski, commanded from the Rzeszów castle...

worked out by Zakapior
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photos
(bo, ordynat, mk, zakapior)

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Castles in the Roztochia, and farther the Region of Volhynia and the Region of Podolia
By admin
Published: 05.06.2010

Zhovkva (Żółkiew)

   
Zhovkva is a town full of monuments, Situated in the Roztochia - 34 km from Lvov. Founded in 1597 by Stanisław Żółkiewski, the Field Crown Hetman. It was the private town. It was granted city rights in 1603. Next, by heirdom, it became the property of his grandson, King John III Sobieski, it also belonged respectively to the Daniłowicz family and to the Radziwiłł family....
Zhovkva was a favorite residence of John III Sobieski. The king strengthened the town with modern fortifications, he was also decorating it in a Baroque style, he brought there his numerous war trophies...
Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


Olesko 

    Olesko is a town situated around 70 km from
Lvov (not far from Pidhirsti and Zolochiv), famous mainly for a castle, a church and a monastery of the Capuchins and a former Holy Trinity Catholic church. For the first time, Olesko appeared in the written sources from 1372. The castle, situated on a hill overlooking the neighboring plain, was built in the 14th century by Galician Volhynian dukes and was many times destroyed by the Tatars. In 1432, the castle was conquered by Jagiełło, who gave it to Jan of Sienno. After the Sienieński family, the Herbut family, later the Kamieniecki family, and at last the Daniłowicz families were the next owners of the castle...
Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


Pidhirtsi (Podhorce)

    One of the most precious palaces and garden complexes in the Kresy, in the type of villa castello. The composition is based on numerous connections between the view and the surroundings. The palace is situated in a way which enables one to see from the representative rooms and from the garden terraces the boundless plains of the Volhynia Region, and the palace itself is visible from the Volhynia Region for many kilometers...
Władysław of Varna bestowed the goods of Pidhirtsi and Zahirtsi to Janusz Podhorecki...
Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


Zolochiv (Złoczów)

    - situated to the East from
Lvov on a Road to Ternopil, relatively not far from Pidhirtsi and Olesko.
During the times of Sigismund the Old, Wladysław Sieniński, whose town was granted the Magdeburg Rights in 1523, was the owner of the castle. The Górka family of Greater Poland was the next owners of the castle, and since 1592, Marek Sobieski - the grandfather of King John III Sobieski - owned the castle...
Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


Brody 

    
The castle was built in 1630-1635 by Grand Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski. A two-storey residential building in the form of a palace with a big courtyard decorated with arcades, casemates and a tower was built on a pentagon. The whole was surrounded by walls and defensive shafts with ramparts and a moat. An entrance led through a bridge above the moat and through a gate.

Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
Photos Aleksander Mishuk, Mieczysław Kowal, Janusz Kurasz, Jurek Jaremczuk, (zakapior)

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Ruins of castles in the Podkarpacie Region...
By admin
Published: 25.05.2010

visit with us...
see - 
http://pogranicze.eu/pl/gallery/

Ruins of the castle of the Fredropol

... history of the Fredro family...


Ruins of the Kamieniec castle in Odrzykoń

... history of the families: Kamieniecki, Boner, Firlej, Skotnicki...
... belongs to the oldest fortresses in the Podkarpacie Region...
… traces of the settlement from the period of the Lusatian culture discovered on the castle hill show it…
… the castle was inherited by the Firlej family (the lower castle) and by the Skotnicki family (the upper castle), history of this quarrel served Aleksander Fredro as a plot for The Revenge…


Ruins of the castle of the Kmita family on the Sobień mountain

... history of honorable Peter Kmita called Lunak...
... between Załuż and Monasterzec, on the hill densely covered with plants, there are the ruins of the Mediaeval Sobień castle …
… the castle was built in the 14th century during the reign of king Casimir the Great, the one who “left Poland in brick…”…


Ruins of the castle of the Węgierka

... history of the Pruchnicki and Pieniążek families...
... next to Pruchnik there is a grand, cylindrical defensive bastion. It is a remnant of the bastile castle (the 16th-17th century)…
…the Pieniążek family gave the castle its defensive character, and the residence remained in their hands until the beginning of the 18th century…

… the castle burnt and was not rebuilt any more …

Worked out był Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photos (bo, ordynat, kryzk, mk, zakapior)

comment - http://pogranicze.eu/pl/gallery/

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Castles in the region of Podolia 2
By admin
Published: 05.05.2010

Zbarazh (Zbaraż)

 - In the 13th century, at the top of the Old Zbarazh Mountain, a wooden fortified castle, which was destroyed during the Tatars invasion in 1589, was built…

The second castle was raised by Zbarazh dukes – brothers Jerzy and Krzysztof. A design of the castle was prepared by the Italian architect Vincenzo Scamozzi in 1612, and construction works began in 1620. In 1627, after the death of Krzysztof and later, after the death of his brother Jerzy, the castle went into the hands of the Wiśniowiecki family (they came from the same Korybutowicz lineage as the Zbaraski family). New owners strengthened the castle’s defensive system, and enlarged a residential part – the palace…
For Poles, a visit in the town is always an opportunity for emotion or, at least, it is an adventure with a thrill…
… We are recalling With Fire and Sword…
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


Buchach (Buczacz)


 The castle was built in the 14th century by the Buczacki family. Formerly, it was a wooden building, later – a brick one. Built on a triangle base it had an entrance through a gate tower and leading through a courtyard to a residential building...
The Buczacki family settled in Yazlovetz, they adopted the name Jazłowiecki. Due to their efforts, the town and the castle enlarged...
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


Yazlovetz (Jazłowiec)

 A castle, and later unfortunately ruins of the castle, which survived till the outbreak of World War II, was built in the first half of the 16th century by Jerzy Jazłowiecki (1575), the Grand Crown Hetman, and beautified and strengthened by his son Mikołaj, the starost of Sniatyn...
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


Terebovl  (Trembowla)

 Thanks to Henryk Sienkiewicz every Pole knows what the
fortress in Kamianets Podilskyi was in the old Poland and what the history of the fortress is. It is a completely different story with respect to the castle in Terebovl, which was considered to be the next after Kamianets and served an important function in a defensive system of the Galicia land...
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


Vyshnivets (Wiśniowiec)


 Formerly a town, it is situated on the border of the Volhynia Region and the Podolia Region, by the Horyn River, about 25 km to the East from Załoźce...
The first mentions about the settlement come from 1395, but under the name Vyshnivets the place was mentioned for the first time in the half of the 15th century. The town is known mainly from the battle which took place there on
28 April 1512, when under Vyshnivets the army of Rzeczpospolita conquered the Tatars’ army...
The grandson of the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Gediminas, Dymitr Korybut founded castles in Vyshnivets and in Zbarazh. When the first castle was built, he started to use the name Wiśniowiecki...
The famous duke Jerema Michał (1612-1651), the voivode of
Ruthenia, founded a church and a monastery of Carmelites (1645) in the town and fortified the castle which has already existed there…
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
Photos Aleksander Mishuk, Mieczysław Kowal, Janusz Kurasz, Jurek Jaremczuk, (zakapior)

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Castles of the Podkarpacie Region /1
By admin
Published: 25.04.2010

Royal castles, lordly palaces full of splendor, Old Polish manor - houses, hidden among aged parks, and majestic ruins of the former seats - all this may be seen while travelling through the picturesque corners of the PODKARPACIE Region.
... come, see, comment...
visit:
http://pogranicze.eu/pl/gallery/
http://eu.pogranicze.eu/index.php?categoryid=17

Baranów Sandomierski
The history of the generations – Leszczyński, Wiśniowiecki, Sanguszko, Lubomirski,  Małachowski, Potocki, Krasicki and Dolański…
... the castle in Baranów, the old seat of the Leszczyński family, is an impressive example of the Renaissance architecture, one of the best preserved ones in Europe
… a beautiful park...
visit:

http://eu.pogranicze.eu/index.php?categoryid=17&p2_articleid=147

fot. Paweł Rut

Przecław
...
Ligęza, Koniecpolski, Tarnowski, Rey...
... localization of Przecław probably falls on the times of Bolesław the Chaste…
... the manor was in the hands of the Ligęza family till 1548...
... in the  17th century Przecław was bought by the Tarnowski family, who after 20 years sold it to Władysław Rey...

fot. Paweł Rut

Łańcut
... Pilecki, Stadnicki, Lubomirski, Potocki...
... the castle in Łańcut is one of the most beautiful, the best preserved and the most frequently visited castles…
... it was classified to the group of international monuments...
...
Stanisław Lubomirski
, whose wife was Izabela Czartoryska...
visit:
http://eu.pogranicze.eu/index.php?categoryid=17&p2_articleid=182
http://eu.pogranicze.eu/index.php?categoryid=17&p2_articleid=64


Lesko

... the history of the family - ... Kmita "fief of Sobieńsk"... and Stadnicki...
… at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries, Lesko with the broad goods was bestowed to the Kmita family from Wiśnicz, Szreniawa coat of arms, by king Vladislaus Jagiełło…
... Lesko was one of many villages belonging to the Kmita family...


Krasiczyn
...
Krasicki, Modrzewski, Wojakowski, Tarło, Potocki, Piniński, Sapiecha...
... the castle in Krasiczyn,  one of the most beautiful treasures of Renaissance - Mannerist architecture, it belongs to the most beautiful castles in Europe...
... the fact that Sigismund III Vasa, Władysław IV, John Casimir and Augustus II visited the castle speaks about the castle’s past…
visit:

http://eu.pogranicze.eu/index.php?categoryid=17&p2_articleid=148

worked out by Zakapior
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photos
(bo, ordynat, mk, zakapior)

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Castles in the region of Podolia 1
By admin
Published: 05.04.2010

Kamienets Podilskyi (Kamieniec Podolski)

    "On rocky slopes, as if growing from them, there are powerful walls and towers of an old town, in which nature and architects’ talent created a unique view, where a church and a Turkish minaret, a town hall and an Orthodox church stand next to each other, where each stone preserves in itself the voices of history”…
…A chronicle attributes the creation of the stone fortress to the Lithuanian dukes Koriatowicz, who reigned in the duchy in 60s-90s of the 14th century…
A high, rocky bank of the Smotrych River, a picturesque landscape, powerful towers with mysterious Latin inscriptions...
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


Khotyn (Chocim)

    Situated on a crossing of trade routes, Khotyn has always attracted the invaders’ attention.
…in order to protect Khotyn from the invaders, a fortress which survived centuries and which saw under its walls the army of the Ottoman Empire, insurgents of Mucha, national avengers of Detyna, warriors of Dmytro Vyshnevetsky, and Petro Doroshenko was built…
…Khotyn attracts tourists from all over the world; it is one of the oldest towns in Kresy, which not long ago celebrated its 1000th anniversary. At the beginning of the 11th century, Prince Vladimir I of Kiev
created a system of border fortifications on the West and South of the new state, including Khotyn…
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz


Holy Trinity Trenches (Okopy Trójcy Świętej)


   
On a long, rocky promontory near the mouth of the Zbruch River to the Dniester River, on a South-East edge of Galicia, and on the westernmost extent point of Tarnopol Voivodeship in the period of the Second Rzeczpospolita, there are ruins of the fortress from the 17th century, which became famous due to the colorful descriptions in The Un-Divine Comedy by Zygmunt Krasiński. It was there, in a literary vision of Krasiński, on the Holy Trinity Trenches, that aristocrats defended themselves from revolutionists, and the place became a symbol of the Polish conservatism and traditionalism.
Since 1672, Kamianets Podilskyi, the impregnable fortress, was in the Turkish hands. In the same year, King Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki signed a disgraceful treaty in Buchach, giving the region of Podolia to the Turks.
Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
Photos Aleksander Mishuk, Mieczysław Kowal, Janusz Kurasz, Jurek Jaremczuk, (zakapior)

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The Northern Castles
By admin
Published: 25.03.2010

Kurozwęki castle 

  
In the sources from 1246, Kurozwęki...

However, more prominent works are surely connected with other owners of the goods and the castle, the Lanckoroński family. It is because one of the two daughters of Hieronim Kurozwęcki, Anna, after 1521 married a huntsman of  Sandomierz, Jan Lanckoroński, with Kurozwęki as her dowry… 
   Sołtyk’s daughter, Emilia, in 1833 married Paweł Popiel, Sulima coat of arms, and had Kurozwęki as her dowry. The couple settled there after the fire of Popiel’s property in the Cracow region Ruszcza in 1840. Paweł Popiel, a prominent representative of Galician conservatisms, a publicist – a cofounder of “Czas”, already in 1873 gave Kurozwęcki goods to his son, Martin…
Zhukiewicz Bohdan
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

Ujazd, the ruins of Krzyżtopór castle 

   Krzyżtopór Castle was raised in 1626-1644 at Krzysztof Ossoliński’s command. It is an example of an Early Baroque fortress, rather representative than defensive one. The name “Krzyżtopór” is derived from a cross (the sign of the  counter-reformation) and an axe (Polish: topór, the emblem of the castle’s founder) forged above the main entrance to the castle. The building itself is huge. It was divided into: four bastions, which represent the four seasons; inside there are 12 halls symbolizing 12 months; 52 rooms, i.e. 52 weeks of the year; and, according to the records, formerly there were also 356 windows representing the number of days in the year. Supposedly, one of the rooms had a glass ceiling above which there was an enormous aquarium with goldfishes, and the castle was surrounded by broad gardens...
Zhukiewicz Bohdan
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

The ruins of Janowiec castle

   At the beginning of the 16th century Mikołaj Firlej, Lewart coat of arms, the starost of Kazimierz, and later the castellan of Cracow and the grand crown hetman in the land of the former village Syrokomla started to build a marvelous  bastile building in a Late Renaissance style. The residence’s grandeur was to surpass the castle in Kazimierz situated on the other side of the Vistula. The works started in 1507 and lasted around 20 years. In 1537, Sigismund the Old granted city rights to the previously mentioned settlement. In an appropriate document there was a mention that the king allows Piotr Firlej to locate Janowiec near the fortress […] (built at a great expense). This leads us to a rational conclusion that Mikołaj Firlej initiated the building activities, but it was his son – the Ruthenian voivode Piotr - who was the main founder.  Sigismund the Old and Queen Bona stayed in the castle during the ceremony of the town’s location...
Zhukiewicz Bohdan
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz

Kazimierz Dolny

   The history of Kazimierz Dolny reaches the beginnings of Poland. Jan Długosz writes about the region around Kazimierz as being the property of the Benedictine monastery on Łysa Góra already in the 11th century. He also claims  with no doubts that around 1170 Casmir the Just presented a number of villages together with Wietrzna Góra to Norbertine Sisters from Krakow’s district, Zwierzyniec. In gratitude for that gift the sisters changed the name Wietrzna Góra into Kazimierz (Casmir)...
The ruins of the castle 
   As Jan Długosz writes, the Kazimierz castle was raised in the 40s of the 14th century on the initiative of the king Casmir the Great. It was situated on a hill not far from the already existing lonely tower built probably during the reign of Vladislaus the Elbow-High. Both buildings were to serve above all the protection of the town and the nearby passage across the Vistula against the attacks of the Tatars’ hordes, but they also had inside a customs chamber and a control centre for the ships moving on the river...
Zhukiewicz Bohdan
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photos Mieczysław Kowal, Antoni Hadała (bo, zakapior)

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Olszanica - photo (zakapior)