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Ethnographic regions... sacral buildings
By Pogranicze Media
Published: 10.04.2011

The Church from Bączal Dolny
- under the invocation of St. Nicolas the Wonder-Worker from 1667 from Bączal Dolny near Jasło in the Ethnographic Park is situated on a little eminence in the East Pogorzans section. The block of the building, oriented and made of wood on a stone underpinning brickwork, covered with shingle and surrounded with arcades consists of two independent parts: body and tower. The body consists of the aisle with west and south entrances as well as three-sided closed presbytery with joined two-strayed "zachrystia". The presbytery is separated from the aisle with one step of tile floor and cut semicircuraly with a bay in an east wall. To the west wall of the body a tower is added. Its lower part serves as a vestibule. The church is lighted with a raw of windows in a south wall of the body.

   Interior decorations of the church were created from the 16th cent. to the 19th cent.
  
The interior arrangement of the church is mostly created by three late baroque altars. The main altar originally with the effigy of the patron, kept by the parish in a new church shows St. Valentine dressed in a bishop canonicals and with a palm of martyrdom in his hand while bringing back the sight to a kneeling boy. On a bas-relief antependium of the altar table of the above mentioned altar there is The Blessed Virgin giving scapulars to St. Simon Stock and saint Carmelite nun. The side altar on its north side is devoted to the Holy Family, whereas the one opposite shows the Transfiguration of the Lord, and in its finial Christ Emmanuel among arms Christi. On the north wall of the presbytery, next to the entrance to "zachrystia" there is a late Renaissance pulpit ornamented with arabesque and added late baroque canopy with a lantern. Within presbytery there is, among others, a late gothic statue of Risen Lord set on a rococo console and there are table paintings of St. Anna "Samotrzeć" from the first half of the 17th cent. as well as of Crowning with Thorns from the second half of the 16th cent. On a "rainbow" beam there is a baroque crucifix and on the north wall of the aisle there are two 17th cent. paintings: one shows St. Antonii Padewski with a Child and the other Crucifixion with "Odrowąż" coat of arms. On a choir there are organ from the half of the 17th cent. decorated with a golden ornament and supported with a pair of herms. There are some interesting things inside this church such as: umbraculum, that is a standing screen which covers monstrance during the solemn services. There are also relics of Symplicjusz and Walery introduced into the main altar as well as of Wiktoryn whose relics are kept in reliquary which is on the Transfiguration of the Lord altar table.
  
Preservation recently made inside the church restored its glamour and revealed some sights of original polychromes on the walls of presbytery.
Zakapior (photo zakapior)
translated by Justyna Rymarowicz



photo (zakapior)

The Orthodox Church from Rosolin
- under the invocation of St. Onufrius the Hermit from 1750 from Rosolin can be found in An open Air Museum in Sanok in the Bojkos section. This wooden temple, built on a stone underpinning brickwork, covered with shingle and oriented, consists of the vestibule, the aisle and closed presbytery. Above the vestibule there is a choir, whereas by the north wall of the presbytery there is so called "zachrystia". The aisle is separated from the presbytery with a step as well as with a beam which close from below the rectangular bay in the east wall. All the rooms are covered with ceilings and lighted with three small windows in the south wall of the building.
   The equipment of the building is original, only some of the movable things are from the 18th and 19th cent. The interior decoration is created by three late baroque altars, from which the main one shows the saint patron of this church adoring the Coronation of the Blessed Virgin, the one on the north side presents St. John Nepomucen, and the opposite one St. Nicolas the Wonder-Worker dressed in canonicals of Roman Catholic bishop. The last altar is worth paying attention to because of the Saint’s attribute - three blocks of gold put on an open book as well as three kneeling women in the bottom left hand corner of the painting. On the above mentioned altar there is a reliquary in a shape of a cross which is kissed by the faithful during the liturgy. On a rainbow beam there is a crucifix with a passion group, on the walls there are the effigies of the apostles and the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Apart from the gonfalon in the Orthodox Church there is also a procession figure of Virgin Mary made of wood and dressed in a dress fringed with a lace, put under the canopy ornamented with paper flowers.
   The interior of the church is decorated with original wall polychromes which has figural-ornamental character and was painted in distemper on a lime: the ceiling beams are decorated with floral theme, on the north wall of the aisle there is an invocatory effigy of St. Florian, on the south wall of the presbytery there is an imitation of patterned tire, and the bay in the east wall of the aisle is hidden under the curtain.
   On the inner wall of the "tabernakulum" in the main altar there is an inscription which informs about the date when the church was built and the name of the author of it (Antoni). The church was probably financed by a young man whose effigy dressed in a nobleman’s dress hangs in the aisle (1728-1750). "Leliwa" coats of arms which are on a painting and antependium of the main altar as well as Sass coat of arms show that the founder probably belonged to one of those groups. These two houses had their own bench on a double level stand in the aisle.
   The Orthodox Church from Rosolin till 1947 was used as a branch of Greek Catholic parish in Polana, but its architectural-spatial arrangement, its equipment and iconography indicate that the building was originally intended for Roman Catholic confession.
Zakapior (photo zakapior)
translated by Justyna Rymarowicz



photo (zakapior)

The Orthodox Church from Grąziowa
- under the invocation of the Nativity from Grąziowa is now situated in the Ethnographic Park in the Bojkos section. Built of wood on a stone underpinning brickwork, covered with shingle and oriented was at Greek Catholic confession disposal. The interior consists of two-level vestibule, aisle with a side entrance in a south wall and a sanctuary. From the vestibule to the aisle you can go through law, rectangular entrance and the level of sanctuary is one step higher. One can notice two-storey arcades on the outside of the building. They run round the main entrance and the aisle. There is also the upper room above the vestibule and tent-like roofs above each of the three rooms, topped with bulbous aver-bells. The middle roof covers the dome which is stretched above the aisle.
   Inside the Orthodox Church it is worth paying attention to the iconostasis which dates back to the second half of the 18th century and comes from the Orthodox Church under the invocation of St. Basil the Great in Poździacz (now the building serves as a Roman Catholic Church). It is a five-rowed iconostasis ornamented with racially. The central open-work holy gate with the images of four Evangelists have the icons of The Blessed Virgin Eleusis and Christ Panthocrator on its wings. In front of them there are altar table. By the side diaconal entrances, by the south wall of the aisle there is an icon of St. Nicolas the Wonder-worker dressed in a liturgical bishop clothes and opposite there is an icon of St. Paraskewa the Great Woman Martyr with a cross in her right hand and a leaf of victory palm in her left hand. Both icons are rested on so called "predelli" icons which show The Blessed Virgin with Child on a throne, accompanied by St. Teodozy and Antoni Pieczerski as well as St. Peter and Paul. The next raw in the iconostasis is a set of solemn icons separated with an icon of Last Supper, above them there is an icon of Intercession Prayer (gr. deesis) together with apostles above who there are cartouches with busts of prophets joined with a crucifix. In front of the iconostasis there is an auxiliary altar table called "tetrapod" with a special law icon-desk on it. By the south wall of the aisle there is also a high stand with a double utilitarian meaning: it serves as an analog ion from which Gospel is read, or as "proskynitarion" when there is an icon of Vertical on it. In the middle of the church there is a stone altar table, covered with a table cloth and obligatory liturgical equipment around the vessel for Spiritual Gifts (= tabernakulum).
   The interior is completed with the icons from the 17th and 18th cent on the aisle and vestibule walls - eternal feretrum put on by-wall pulpit, two-sided painted gonfalon and the 18th century procession cross.
   Sanctuary, the room above the vestibule as well as a fragment of the south wall of the aisle are ornamented with figural polychromes made by Stefan Paszecki in 1735. It was ordered by Grigorij Kolosterski with a view to obtaining his and his wife’s absolution.
   Fragments of the original iconostasis from the Orthodox Church in Grąziowa can be seen at a permanent exhibition called "Carpathian Icon" in the Open Air Museum in Sanok.


photo (zakapior)

Cerkiew z Ropek
The Greck-Catholic Church (1801) from Ropki
   Cerkiew pod wezwaniem Narodzenia Bogurodzicy z 1801 roku z miejscowości Ropki k./Gorlic w Parku Etnograficznym ulokowana jest w sektorze łemkowskim. Drewniana na kamiennej podmurówce, pokryta gontem i orientowana została wzniesiona staraniem lokalnej greckokatolickiej społeczności. W planie trójdzielna złożona z szerszej nawy ujętej pomieszczeniami na analogicznym rzucie poziomym - od wschodu sanktuarium, od zachodu nawa z nadwieszoną na jego ścianach galerią chóru muzycznego. Bryła zewnętrzna świątyni zwraca uwagę stopniowaniem wysokości poszczególnych jej członów. Każda z nich akcentowana jest kopułami baniastymi wieńczonymi latarniami pozornymi począwszy od najwyższej wieży obejmującej w dolnej części kondygnacji przednawie, poprzez nawę po sanktuarium. Dwa ostatnie nakryte są uskokowymi dachami namiotowymi zdobionymi fryzami arkadkowymi. Cerkiew opasuje drewniane ogrodzenie z dzwonnicą nadbramną z 1904 roku, które obejmie także kamienne nagrobki znaczące symbolicznie przestrzeń cmentarną.
   Wnętrze cerkwi ozdobione jest iluzjonistyczną polichromią szczelnie pokrywającą powierzchnię ścian i elementy konstrukcyjne, wykonaną w 1891 roku przez malarską rodzinę Bogdańskich z Jaślisk, Zygmunta i Michała - autorów również ikonostasu przejętego wraz z cerkwią przez muzeum - której należytą postać przywróciły przeprowadzone ostatnimi laty prace konserwatorskie. Program polichromii odpowiada symbolice układu architektoniczno - przestrzennego budowli cerkiewnej. Kopuły rozpięte nad sanktuarium i nawą oraz strop ponad przednawiem wypełnia rozgwieżdżone niebo jako tło dla przedstawienia sceny Zwiastowania Marii, wyobrażenia Trójcy Świętej górującej nad nawą oraz Ducha Świętego w postaci gołębicy w glorii promienistej unoszącej się nad częścią ołtarzową. Na ścianach bocznych nawy umieszczone są w architektonicznych ujęciach obrazów ołtarzowych przedstawienia odnoszące się do idei Kościoła ziemskiego uosobionego poprzez wiernych gromadzących się właśnie w obrębie nawy: po południowej stronie widnieje scena Rozmnożenia Chleba przez Chrystusa w trakcie nauczania, zaś po przeciwległej stronie Matka Boska Opieki, która rozpościera welon - omoforion ponad zgromadzonymi wszystkimi stanami. Artykulację ścian nadto wyznaczają arkady na tle marmoryzacji, a okna ujmują obramienia bogato zdobione ornamentyką.
Zakapior (photo zakapior)
translated by Justyna Rymarowicz

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Piątkowa - photo Wiesław Gargała

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The wooden architecture route in Podkarpacie


Of Folk Architecture Museum in Sanok



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