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Ethnographic regions - The open-air museum in Sanok
By Pogranicze Media
Published: 10.05.2015

The Bojki
   The whole Bojks’ land was hilly and stretched from the springs of Solinka and Wysoki Dział in 
Bieszczady Mountains in the West to the springs of Łomnica in the East (the Ukraine). In the East the Bojks were neighbours to Hucuły, in the West to the Lemks. The Osława River separated the Bojks from the Lemks. In Poland
to the Bojks’ belonged    Podgórze Bieszczadzkie as far as Ustrzyki Dolne. The Bojks were the descendants of ‘rusko-wołoski’ settlers, who lived there mainly in 16th cent.
   The Bojks’ land had very difficult settling conditions because of mountains overgrown with forest as well as narrow and deep valley. The Bojks used Ukrainian language dialect, and they were of Greek-Catholic religion.
   In the years 1944 and 1946, on the base of an agreement between Polish and Soviet authorities concerning the exchange of population, vast parts of the
Bieszczady Mountains were displaced. In 1947 the second stage of displacement, so called ‘Wisła’ action, took place. It comprised some parts of the Bojks’ land and the whole Lemks’ land. Whereas in 1951 there was so called ‘Hrubieszów-Tomaszów’ action. The Soviets took Poland 480 km of land in the vicinity of Sokal and Uhrynów, and instead gave the area of 480km in the vicinity of Ustrzyki, Czarna and Lutowiska. On the Bojks’ land Polish people were displaced.

The Lemki
   The Lemks' land spreads through both sides of Carpathians from Osława and Laborca in the East to Poprad in the West. The Lemks is a group which had been forming during a long historical process, soaking and assimilating different ethnic elements. Their forefathers (rusko-wołoscy settlers) settled these lands mainly in the 16th cent. The name ‘Lemk’ appeared relatively late, it was rather a nickname as the word ‘łem’ was eagerly and often used by them. They called themselves 'Rusnaky'. Only from the half of the 19th cent the name ‘The Lemks' had been accepted in literature and later among the population. The Lemks' dialect is one of the types of Ukrainian language.
   With regard to differences in folk culture the Lemks' can be divided into three sub-groups: western, central and eastern. The differences among them can be noticed in speech, clothes and architecture. The Lemks' were Greek Catholic (at the end of the 17th cent. they accepted the
   At the end of 19th cent. a lot of the Lemks' emigrated to the
USA and Canada
to find a job. Significant influence on cultural changes had the First World War, mainly in sphere of social and material culture (changes in interior designing).
   The Second World War caused, that the Lemks' land was completely transformed. South-East area became deserted because of two big displacement waves. Within the framework of the agreement about people’s exchange, which was in force from 1944 to 1946, part of the Bojks' and Lemks' moved to  USSR, and in 1947 within the framework of 'Wisła' action  the remaining Ukrainians were displaced to north and west parts of Poland. There was almost complete depopulation, particularly among the Bojks' and Lemks'.

Smolnik, district: Sanok
The one building farmstead (1925)
   More modern type of house from the Łemki region, with two dwelling rooms on the one side of hall and a room called "chyżka" on the other / The facade decorated with rich, colorful, floral and geometrical ornaments. Nut till the end of the period between the World Wars did this kind of decoration develop. Interior is not furnished.

   Historical Sanok’s Land, on which these interesting ethno historical phenomena existed, was incorporated into Polish Kingdom not till 1340, and after short period of Hungarian Angering reign, after 1387, it became permanently united with Poland. Early Medieval border between Poland and Ukraine was on Wisłok and Jasiołka rivers, whereas after Ukraine was incorporated into created Sanok’s land Polish and Ukrainian people lived beside one on other, Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches neighbored (after 1596 Greek Catholic Church dominated), there were vivid cultural and ethnic differences. Thus, on Historical Sanok’s Land there was distinct and classical ethnic and cultural borderland, which remained till the 20th century.
   Different ethnic elements took part in the settlement of south-east Poland: Poles, Ukrainians, Germans and smaller marginal groups. An extremely important element, which formed further ethnographic groups, was so called "kolonizacja wołoska". Wołosi - nomads from south parts of Europe, brought with them a developed herding and the way of village organization on so called "wołoskie law". The essential element of this law was so called sheep tribute and other elements of pastoral mountain economy. What left after them were names of mountains, fields, passes and the names connected with milk processing.
   On Sanok’s land, as a result of complicated ethno historical processes, ethnographic groups (ethnographic group - a group which has its own, objective cultural features, awareness of group autonomy and which is a part of ethnic groups and communities) of the Bojkos, the Lemkos and Pogorzans were created. All these groups formed a unique complex of Polish-Ukrainian ethnic-cultural borderland groups.

Konieczna, district: Gorlice
   The one room building with a carcass vault, being an extend on of the walls. Flip roof suspended in the facade. Granaries with vaulted ceilings appeared singly in villages in the western and central regions of the Łemki. This is an example of influences of folk culture from Slovakia, where such buildings are common.

The Dolinianie (Dale Dwellers)
   The area around Sanok in the south till Bukowica range, in the neighborhood of Mrzygłód as well as in the north and east from Lesko was inhabited by Polish-Ukrainian people, called Dolinianie (the valley inhabitants). The group formed from the descendants of the 14th and 15th cent. Polish and German settlers as well as Ukrainian people. The German settlers assimilated very fast. The Ukrainians and Poles lived in many villages through centuries. In Bykowce, Czerteż, Zahutyń, Hołuczków, Wolica most of the inhabitants were Ukrainian. There were also villages in which there were only Ukrainian people: Stróże Wielkie, Serednica, or only Polish poeple: Raczkowa, Falejówka, Poraż, Niebieszczany, Nowotaniec. Throughout centuries these two groups mixed which can be seen in customs, domestic equipment and clothes.

The Pogórzanie (Uplanders)
   Pogorzans live on the area of Carpathian plateau (Ciężkowickie, Strzyżowskie and Dynowskie Plateau as well as Doły Jasielsko-Sanockie), from
White River in the west to San River
in the east. These are mainly Polish people with a small number of Ukrainians and German people. However, groups of Ukrainian and German people soon became Polonized. We can still notice their existence in names of villages and surnames.
   Pogorzans are neighbors with Lachy sądeckie from the west, Krakowiacy and Rzeszowiacy from the north and Dolinianie and Lemks from the south. With regard to cultural differences Pogorzans are divided into two parts: western (the area of Gorlice, Jasło and Strzyżów), and eastern (Brzozów). The border between those two groups is in Krosno. The differences between western and eastern groups were especially seen in architecture and clothes.
Zakapior (photo zakapior)
translated by Justyna Rymarowicz

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