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Castles in the region...
By Pogranicze Galicja
Published: 05.05.2010

Vyshnivets (Wiśniowiec)
Princes Wiśniowieckich
    Formerly a town, it is situated on the border of the Volhynia Region and the Podolia Region, by the Horyn River, about 25 km to the East from Załoźce...
    The first mentions about the settlement come from 1395, but under the name Vyshnivets the place was mentioned for the first time in the half of the 15th century. The town is known mainly from the battle which took place there on
28 April 1512, when under Vyshnivets the army of Rzeczpospolita conquered the Tatars’ army...
The grandson of the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Gediminas, Dymitr Korybut founded castles in Vyshnivets and in Zbarazh. When the first castle was built, he started to use the name Wiśniowiecki...
The famous duke Jerema Michał (1612-1651), the voivode of
Ruthenia, founded a church and a monastery of Carmelites (1645) in the town and fortified the castle which has already existed there..

Z
barazh (Zbaraż)

Siedziba princes (książąt) Zbarskich and Wiśniowieckich
 - in the 13th century, at the top of the Old Zbarazh Mountain, a wooden fortified castle, which was destroyed during the Tatars invasion in 1589, was built…

    The second castle was raised by Zbarazh dukes - brothers Jerzy and Krzysztof. A design of the castle was prepared by the Italian architect Vincenzo Scamozzi in 1612, and construction works began in 1620. In 1627, after the death of Krzysztof and later, after the death of his brother Jerzy, the castle went into the hands of the Wiśniowiecki family (they came from the same Korybutowicz lineage as the Zbaraski family). New owners strengthened the castle’s defensive system, and enlarged a residential part - the palace…
   For Poles, a visit in the town is always an opportunity for emotion or, at least, it is an adventure with a thrill…
… We are recalling With Fire and Sword…

Buchach (Buczacz) 

    The castle was built in the 14th century by the  Buczacki family. Formerly, it was a wooden building, later - a brick one. Built on a triangle base it had an entrance through a gate tower and leading through a courtyard to a residential building...
   The Buczacki family settled in Yazlovetz, they adopted the name Jazłowiecki. Due to their efforts, the town and the castle enlarged...


Yazlovetz (Jazłowiec)
    A castle, and later unfortunately ruins of the castle, which survived till the outbreak of World War II, was built in the first half of the 16th century by Jerzy Jazłowiecki (1575), the Grand Crown Hetman, and beautified and strengthened by his son Mikołaj, the starost of Sniatyn...

Terebovl  (Trembowla)
    Thanks to Henryk Sienkiewicz every Pole knows what the
fortress in Kamianets Podilskyi was in the old Poland and what the history of the fortress is. It is a completely different story with respect to the castle in Terebovl, which was considered to be the next after Kamianets and served an important function in a defensive system of the Galicia land...
Aleksander Mishuk
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
Photos Aleksander Mishuk, Mieczysław Kowal, Janusz Kurasz, Jurek Jaremczuk, (zakapior)

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Castles of Volyn...
By Pogranicze Galicja
Published: 25.03.2010

Lutsk (Łuck)
Луцьк, Łućk - Luceoria
 -
a
lready in the early Middle Ages in the place of the  present Lutsk there was a Slavic town of the Dulebs’ tribe also called the Luczans. The name of the town was supposed to be derived from them but, according to other hypothesis, it comes from a word bow (Polish łuk) or Luka (Polish) referring to a meander of a river and riverside meadows surrounding the town...
   In 1073 Lutsk started to belong to the Vladimir Kingdom. In 1083 Lithuanians and Yotvingians attacked the town...
   In 1321 Gediminas attacked Lutsk and placed there his starost...

Ostroh (Ostróg) Острог
Rody; Ostrogskih, Zasławskih, Wiśniowieckih, Sanguszków, Jabłonowskih, Dubieńskih
 - from the beginning of the 15th century a town and  a castle by the Wilia River were the capital of the sovereign dukes of Russ - the Ostrogski family, in the 16th century they were the centre of the powerful latifundium - one of the biggest in Rzeczpospolita. At the turn of the 16th and 17th century, Ostroh was the centre of the cultural life in Volyn...
Not much remained of the former “magnitude.”...


Dubno
- located on a low headland, surrounded by rivers’ backwaters  on the Ikwa River (basin of the Pripyat River) made famous by Słowacki. Together with Ostroh, Kremenets and Pochaiv it constitutes the most attractive region of Volyn...
   In the 11th century, Dubno belonged to the Rurikovich family...
   It is one of the oldest and the most interesting towns of Volyn. The first mention comes from The Ipatov Chronicle. It informs that in 1099, by a decision of the dukes of Rus, the town on the Ikwa River was given to the duke David Igorovitch. During the great invasion of Mongols in 1240-41 it was probably destroyed...
   In the 13th century the town belonged to the Kingdom of Galicia-Vladimir, and since 1340 - to Latvia. From the half of the 14th century a strong Polish garrison was stationing there...


Kremenets (Krzemieniec)
A royal castle and town.
- Kremenets is located in the valley among the hills called the  Kremenets Mountains. Due to these hills, the region seems
to be typical rather for the neighboring Podolia. This picturesque region was formerly called the Volhynian Switzerland...
   The place administratively belongs to the Ternopil Oblast. Certainly, it is the only Volhynian town present in the awareness of each generation of Poles due to Juliusz Słowacki. It is one of the most frequently visited tourist spots in Volyn...
   Unfortunately, it also attracts thieves. That is why one should avoid picking up casual guides to the car, especially when driving up the Bona Mountain...

Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photos Janusz Kurasz, Mieczysław Kowal, Antoni Hadała, Jurek Jaremczuk, Jurek Owczaruk, (zakapior)

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Castles in the region of Kresy end Podolia...
By Pogranicze Galicja
Published: 25.06.2009

Kamienets Podilskyi (Kamieniec Podolski)

    "On rocky slopes, as if growing from them, there are powerful walls and towers of an old town, in which nature and architects’ talent created a unique view, where a church and a Turkish minaret, a town hall and an Orthodox church stand next to each other, where each stone preserves in itself the voices of history”…
… A chronicle attributes the creation of the stone fortress to the Lithuanian dukes Koriatowicz, who reigned in the duchy in 60s-90s of the 14th century…
   A high, rocky bank of the Smotrych River
, a picturesque landscape, powerful towers with mysterious Latin inscriptions...

Khotyn (Chocim)

    Situated on a crossing of trade routes, Khotyn has always attracted the invaders’ attention.
… in order to protect Khotyn from the invaders, a fortress which survived centuries and which saw under its walls the army of the Ottoman Empire, insurgents of Mucha, national avengers of Detyna, warriors of Dmytro Vyshnevetsky, and Petro Doroshenko was built…
… Khotyn attracts tourists from all over the world; it is one of the oldest towns in Kresy, which not long ago celebrated its 1000th anniversary. At the beginning of the 11th century, Prince Vladimir I of Kiev
created a system of border fortifications on the West and South of the new state, including Khotyn…
Aleksander Mishuk

Holy Trinity Trenches (Okopy Trójcy Świętej)


   
On a long, rocky promontory near the mouth of the Zbruch River to the Dniester River, on a South-East edge of Galicia, and on the westernmost extent point of Tarnopol Voivodeship in the period of the Second Rzeczpospolita, there are ruins of the fortress from the 17th century, which became famous due to the colorful descriptions in The Un-Divine Comedy by Zygmunt Krasiński. It was there, in a literary vision of Krasiński, on the Holy Trinity Trenches, that aristocrats defended themselves from revolutionists, and the place became a symbol of the Polish conservatism and traditionalism.
   Since 1672, Kamianets Podilskyi, the impregnable fortress, was in the Turkish hands. In the same year, King Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki signed a disgraceful treaty in Buchach, giving the region of Podolia to the Turks.
Worked out by Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
Photos Aleksander Mishuk, Mieczysław Kowal, Janusz Kurasz, Jurek Jaremczuk, (zakapior)

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Castles in the Kresy...
By Pogranicze Galicja
Published: 25.02.2009

Bar castle
Bona Sfortia Dei gratia regina Poloniae
    The castle was built around 1380 by the Koriatowicz family. It was the Lithuanian ducal  family, which received this land from the Grand Duke of Lithuania - Algirdas. The conferment was approved anew by the Polish king Ladislaus Jagiello
 in 1386. At that time the locality was called Rov. The first castle was a wooden fortified building with two towers and a double brick-wall...
   After a death of the last person from the family (1430) the land was incorporated to the Crown and the castle was inhabited by a royal starost...


Międzybóż castle 
Меджибіж, dawniej Międzyboż, Międzybuże,
Mikołaj Sieniawski
herbu Leliwa, Hetman Wielki Koronny.
    A brick castle was built by the Koriatowicz family, who received the land from the Polish king Casimir the Great in 1366...
    The castle was built in the place of the former wooden borough burned by the Tatars in the 12th century. At that time, the castle was frequently attacked by the Tatars because it was situated between the routes of their assaults called Black Trail and Kuczman Trail.
Bohdan Zhukiewicz
translated by Joanna Hardukiewicz
photo; Jurek Jaremczuk, Jurek Owczaruk, (zakapior)

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Pochajiv - photo Sasza


The Palanok Castle or Mukachevo - photo Grisza

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