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By PJSC Girhimprom
Published: 15.01.2017

SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION OF TRANSBORDER RIVERS IN THE LVIV REGION BORDER AREA

SUBCARPATHIAN PROVINCE

   The largest watercourses, which run from the territory of Lvov Region into Sub Carpathian Province, are the rivers Vyshnia, Shklo, Zavadivka (Lyubachivka).
Potential sources of contamination for the
Vyshnya River
can be emergency dumping of waste water from the towns of Horodok, Sudova Vyshnya, Mostys’ka and Shehynya. A border control station is found in the locality of Stazhava. The quality of water by estimate as far as content of nitric and manganese compounds is concerned refers to Class 3. 
   The Shklo River runs via Yavoriv Lake, which was created in the place of former sculpture open pit. The water in the lake is of salty type of the second class of purity. Potential sources for the Shklo river contamination can be emergency dumping of waste water from the Town of Yavoriv
as well as emergency situations in the international highway with a boundary crossing in Krakovets (Korchova). The Shklo river is a water inlet for the Retychyn river to which come the flows from the former Yaroshevsky and 
   Staroyazivsky underground sulphur mining facilities.  A border control station is found in the locality of Budzyn.  The quality of water in the river e with respect to nitric compounds, sulphates and manganese by estimate refers to Class 3.
   The (Fig. 1) shows a satellite - borne picture of the Yaroshiv section of the underground sulphur mining facility. White spots in the picture are the areas contaminated with sulphur which cannot normally be overgrown as the soils in these places show acid reaction.  Revegetation of this area is envisaged by a project but is delayed because of scarcity of financing the operations. Acid water flows into the
Retychyn River, which falls into the Shklo River
near Krakovets. 
   The similar case is in the territory of the former Staroyazivsky underground sulphur mine (Fig. 2). Water from this area flows into the Yaksha River
which falls into a newly created Yavoriv lake. An experimental section operation at which discontinued in 1973 is of special interest. The area has not been restored up till now.
   The River Zavadivka (Lyubachivka) in the Ukrainian territory is regulated by Zavadiv water storage reservoir, which is characterized by high water quality. Contaminants come to the river from the tributaries Blekh and Bezymiany, which flow through sulphur – contaminated mining fields of the former Nemyriv underground sulphur melting mine. 
   This mine covered the largest surface area and its territory adjoins the Polish - Ukrainian border (Fig. 3).
Quantity of contaminations depends on climatic indices. A border control station is found in the locality of Budomerzh. Quality of the water has improved during the last years and it belongs to Class 2 but during summer hot periods sulphate content in the river increases and pH drops due to accelerated sulphur acidification process.
  
As was estimated on the bases of the satellite-borne photographs (Accurate within 0.1Ha) the total surface area of devasted land is 343.99 Ha, including: PVS 600 – 141.20 Ha, PVS Nemyriv - 144.92 Ha, and PVS Stary Yaziv - 57.86 Ha. Despite significant potential for revitalization of these areas at the expense of preservation cores of zonal vegetation, self-restoration of the destroyed lands is being arrested due to secondary oxidation of mineral sulphur, which is spread on the surface and within the soil profile of the chemically contaminated land.
   In 1990s monitoring studies were carried out in the disturbed areas for which hydro-observation boreholes were drilled and net of benchmarks arranged to control the surface deformation. But these objects haven’t preserved up till now and need renewal. 
   Taking into account this negative impact of the boundary areas contaminated with sulphur upon the water quality in transborder rivers of the Vistula basin, the territory of the former underground sulphur melting mines   require reactivation of scale monitoring survey of the environment pollution, of land and water resources first of all and development of recommendations regarding its rehabilitation.

LYUBELLA PROVINCE

   Along the Polish – Ukrainian border there runs the Western Bug River in the basin of which are found such big towns as Lvov
, Chervonograd, Sokal as well as Dobrotvir electric power station and Chervonograd coal field mines. All this threatens with potential technogeneous contamination of the boundary river.
The map fragment in (Fig. 4) shows the Bug river basin. 
   Preliminary studies performed by the Mining and Chemical Raw Materials Branch of the Academy of Mining Sciences of Ukraine show that the state of environment in Sokal Rayon and of the Chervonograd Coal Field in particular is becoming worse with each passing year and is estimated as close to emergency. 
Coal mining caused a number of negative ecological phenomena: 
   - subsidence of earth surface over the worked out space, which is accompanied by land under
flooding and flooding, 
   - contamination of surface and underground water by drainage from the mines, discharged water 
from dumps as well as resulting from back filling of depressions with dump wastes,
  
- air pollution with waste dump combustion products, dust and ash from boiler plants.
   Processes of sulphide minerals oxidation which take place in the mine dumps and beneficiation wastes are extremely adverse as they result in acid waste water with high content of heavy metals.
Table 1, here below, gives an example of chemical analysis of the water which spreads around the dumps. 
   As one can see from the table the water is very harmful as the content of all components exceeds the MAC. In sample No 6 content of soleplate-ion is 57 times higher than MAC. Acid water spreads around in the neighborhood, flows out into drainage trenches and gets into the Zakhidny Bug River

   There is no monitoring system in the area to check the state of surface and underground water as well as deformations of the surface over the worked-our space. To create such a system joint efforts of all parties concerned are required.

M.D. Yunko
General Director
PJSC Girhimprom

A.M Gaidin
Candidate of Geology and Mineralogy

Table 1.
Chemical analysis of water samples taken from water outlets within Chervonograd central concentrator dump (mg/l).



The (Fig. 1) shows a satellite - borne picture of the Yaroshiv...


The similar case is in the territory of the former Staroyazivsky underground sulphur mine (Fig. 2)...


This mine covered the largest surface area and its territory adjoins the Polish - Ukrainian border (Fig. 3)...


The map fragment in (Fig. 4) shows the Bug river basin...

(Fig. 4) Layout of Coal Mines in Chervonograd District...

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